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ЧУМА XX ВЕКА



В 1981 г. среди группы жителей Сан-Франциско (США) были обнаружены люди, больные странными и редкими формами воспаления легких и различных опухолей. Заболевание заканчивалось смертью. Как выяснилось, у этих больных был резко ослаблен иммунитет организма. Людей начали убивать самые разнообразные микробы, в обычных условиях вызывающие лишь легкое недомогание. Болезнь назвали СПИДом (синдромом приобретенного иммунодефицита).

Постепенно эпидемия новой болезни распространилась по всему миру. Возбудители болезни – вирусы – были одновременно открыты биологами Монтанье во Франции и Галло в США в 1983 г. позднее вирусы СПИДа человека и похожие на них были обнаружены у четырех видов обезьян. Для человека опасны вирусы шимпанзе (CПИД-1) и дымчатого мангабея (CПИД-2) (white-eyelid mangabey).

Bиpyс СПИДа не передается пpи обычных контактах (рукопожатие, поцелуй) не передается комарами или клещами. Передаваться болезнь может пpи переливании крови, пpи использовании нестерильных шприцов, половым путем, а также пpи вскармливании ребенка грудным молоком. Первые полгода – год, а иногда и в течение нескольких лет после заражения у человека незаметно никаких признаков болезни, но он может заразить окружающих. Из-за использования грязных шприцев нередки случаи массового заражения. К примеру, в городе Элисте в 1989 г. по вине медперсонала больницы был заражен 31 ребенок.

Эпидемию СПИДа можно сравнить с тлеющим, но медленно распространяющимся пожаром. Во многих странах Африки и Латинской Америки борьба с этой болезнью почти не ведется. Неизвестно даже какой процент населения уже заражен ею. По степени угрозы человеку СПИД часто сравнивают с чумой и называют «чумой XX века».

До сих пор медицина не может найти лекарство против СПИДа. Существующие средства могут только замедлить течение болезни, но не прекратить ее совсем. Создание вакцины против СПИДа – дело, по-видимому столь же сложное, как и создание вакцин против гриппа, ввиду большой изменчивости вируса.

(Я познаю мир. Биология)

 

 


Exercise 1. Florence Benson wants to take out a life insurance policy. The insurance company has sent her to see a doctor for a check up. This is part of the form the doctor has to complete. Practise their conversation. Use: Can I take your ...? Have you ever had ...? Have you been vaccinated against ...?

FRIARY INSURANCE CONFIDENTIAL
Name_____________________________________________________________________ Children_____________________________Address_______________________________ Marital status________________________Occupation_____________________________
MEASUREMENTS   Height________________________Pulse rate_________Chest (a) normal _____________ Weight_______________________Vision_____________ (b) expanded____________ Blood pressure __________________
Measles__________________________ Mumps___________________________ Chicken-pox_______________________ Whooping cough ___________________   Other serious illnesses (give details below) ___________________________________________________________________________________________________
VACCINATIONS AND INOCULATIONS Polio_____________________________ Scarlet fever_______________________ Diphtheria________________________ Whooping cough___________________ Measles__________________________ Tetanus___________________________
MEDICAL HISTORY (please give approximate dates where possible)

 

 

Please give details of any hospital treatment or operations:__________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions.

1. Does the life insurance system exist in your country? 2. Is it really necessary? Why? 3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the life insurance system in your country 4. Does it differ from the systems of life insurance in other countries of the world? How? 5. What changes would you like to introduce into the existing system in your country? 6. What types of life insurance do you know? 7. Have you got a life insurance policy? If not why?

 


“How to keep fit?” This is the subject that interests everyone. Study the questionnaire which follows and then have a talk with your classmate.

 

1. Would you describe yourself as:


· very fit

· quite fit

· average

· unfit


2. Do you ever get out of breath? Can you touch your toes (without bending your knees)? Can you run 1 km?

3. Does your daily routine involve physical exertion?

4. Do you take regular exercise?


· Yes

· No


5. If you take regular exercise, how often do you take it?


· Every day

· Every other day

· More than once a week

· Once a week

· Less


6. If you take regular exercise, in which of the following ways do you take it?


· Sport

· Jogging

· Swimming

· Cycling

· Dance

· Keep-fit exercises

· Other (what)

 


7. If you play a sport, is it:


· A team game

· Competitive

· Organised

· Professional

· Amateur


8. Do you think sports or PE (physical Education) should be a compulsory part of the school curriculum?


· Yes

· No


9. Why?/Why not?

Exercise 7. Read the text and answer the questions after the text.

One of the first duties we owe to ourselves is to keep our bodies in perfect health. If our body suffers from any disorder our mind suffers with it, and we are unable to make much progress in knowledge, and we are unfit to perform those duties which are required of us in social life.

There are certain laws of health which deserve particular attention and they are so simple that even a child can learn them. A constant supply of pure fresh air is indispensable to good health. To secure this, nothing impure should remain either within or near our homes, and every room in the house especially the bedrooms, should be properly ventilated every day.

Perfect cleanliness is also essential. The whole body should be washed as often as possible. The skin is full of minute pores, cells, blood vessels and nerves. It ‘breathes’ the way the lungs do. Therefore it should always be clean.

Besides its importance to health, there is a great charm in cleanliness. We like to look at one who is tidy and clean. If the skin is kept clean, the teeth thoroughly brushed, the hair neatly combed, and the finger-nails in order, we feel pleased with the person, even though his (her) clothes may be coarse and much mended.

A certain amount of exercise is necessary to keep the body in perfect condition. All the powers (mental and bodily) we possess are strengthened by use and weakened by disuse. Therefore labour and study should succeed each other. The best way of getting exercise is to engage in some work that is useful and at the same time interesting to the mind. It is most essential for the old and the young to do morning exercises and if possible in the open air.

Remember that exercises warm, invigorate and purify the body. Rest is also necessary to the health of the body and mind. The best time for sleep is during the darkness and stillness of the night. Late hours are very harmful to the health as they exhaust the nervous system. We should go to bed early and get up early. It is a good rule “to rise with the lark and to go to bed with the lark”.

Most essential to our body is food. Our body is continually wasting, and requires to be repaired by fresh substance. Therefore food, which is to repair the loss, should be taken with due regard to the exercise and waste of the body.

Be moderate in eating. If you eat slowly you will not overeat. Never swallow your food wholesale – you are provided with teeth for the purpose of chewing your food – and you will never complain of indigestion. We should abstain from everything that intoxicates. The evils of intemperance, especially of alcohol, are too well known.

Intemperance excites bad passions and leads to quarrels and crimes. Alcohol costs a lot of money, which might be used for better purposes. The mind is stupefied by drink and the person who drinks will in course of time, become unfit for his duties. Both health and character are often ruined.


Thus we must remember that moderation in eating and drinking, reasonable hours of labour and study, regularity in exercise, recreation and rest, cleanliness and many other essentials lay the foundation for good health and long life.

Questions: 1. Why do you think people try to keep fit? 2. Why do you think fresh air and cleanliness are necessary to our health? 3. What role does sport play in keeping a person fit? 4. Do you personally go in for sport regularly? 5. Why are late hours harmful to health? 6. Do you often keep late hours? 7. Why is food essential to human body? 8. How does alcohol, smoking and drugs affect the body? 9. What do you do to keep feet?

Exercise 2. Use the following words and word combinations in the sentences of your own.

 

indispensable; to be essential; to strengthen; to weaken; to invigorate; to purify; to exhaust; to be moderate; to intoxicate; intemperance; bad passion; regularity in exercise.

Exercise 3. There were many words with different negative prefixes in the text above. Consult the dictionary and form antonyms of the following words and word combinations with the help of negative prefixes:il- ; in- ; im- ; dis- ; un- :

 

sound, legal, able, comfort, ability, polite, exact, to dress, to be fit, practical, kind, movable, dependent, personal, pure, employed, to agree, active, possible, to be aware, temperance, logical, mature, comfortable, capable, efficient, literate, eatable, pleasant, direct, patient, convenient, probable, adequate.

Exercise 4. Say what a person should do and what you personally do to keep fit.

Exercise 5. In the text above there is a proverb, give Russian equivalents of this proverb and find Russian equivalents to the other proverbs given in this exercise, explain their meaning and say under what circumstances you would use them. Try to find some other proverbs connected with the topic.

1. Good health is above wealth.

2. An apple a day keeps a doctor away.

3. Health is not valued till sickness comes.

4. What can’t be cured must be endured.

5. He who has health has hope, and he who has hope has everything

6. Time is the great healer. / Time cures all things.

7. Time works wonders.

 

Exercise 6. Look at these expressions. What do you think they might mean? Use them in sentences or situations of your own.

as fit as a fiddle; as sound as a bell; as fresh as a daisy; as hot as a fire; as pale as death; as white as a sheet.

 

 


Exercise 1. Listen to the dialogues. Mark stresses and intonation, learn them by heart and act in class.

 

       
   
 
   
 
   
 

 

 


(J. D. O'Connor, Clare Fletcher Sounds English.)

 

Exercise 2. Compose your own dialogue at the hospital emergency department.

 

Exercise 3. Say about your or your friend’s visit to the hospital emergency department.

 


Exercise 1. How many English equivalents for the following do you know?

болезнь, недуг, боль; удалить зуб; чувствовать недомогание; лекарство; полоскать горло; осложнение; запломбировать зуб; сбить температуру; выздороветь.

Exercise 2. Give the most suitable Russian equivalents for the following.

sore - throat, subject, spot, eye, foot;

pain - sharp, dull, growing, constant, annoying, sudden;

bitter - medicine, words, thoughts, taste, experience, moment, cold;

delicate - operation, health, features, situation, colours;

urgent - call, case, message, measures, request, need

 

Exercise 3. Insert prepositions or adverbs where necessary.

1. What are you complaining ...? 2. The best remedy ... a headache is fresh air. 3. If you want to get well you must keep ... bed and follow the doctor’s advice. 4. She says that she is subject ... coughs. 5. Shake the mixture carefully ... use. 6. You have all the symptoms ... the flu. 7. The first thing to do is to keep the temperature ... 8. You can have this prescription made ... the chemist’s. 9. I shall make you a compress ... your throat. 10. My father is ... sick-leave. 11. Whooping cough is a frightening disease to nurse a child ... 12. Cancer is hard to detect... its early stage

 

Exercise 4. Interclass check. Ask your fellow student (your partner).

       
 
What’s the English for? 1. оперировать 2. воспаление 3. инфекционная болезнь 4. коклюш 5. жаловаться на боль в желудке 6. вызывать скорую помощь 7. стонать от боли 8. ставить горчичники на грудь 9. высокое кровяное давление 10. выписывать рецепт 11. заказать лекарство по рецепту 12. поставить пломбу 13. бюллетень по нетрудоспособности 14. капельница 15. осложнение после болезни 16. побочные эффекты 17. пройти рентгеноскопию 18. аптека 19. лекарство от головной боли 20. запустить болезнь 21. раздеться до пояса 22. острая зубная боль 23. палата интенсивной терапии 24. резус фактор 25. анализ на инфекцию в почках
   
What’s the Russian for? 1. a sore throat 2. to feel sick and giddy 3. disease prevention 4. to be laid up with scarlet fever 5. a disposable syringe 6. to undergo a treatment 7. a blood test 8. to inoculate 9. insomnia 10. benign tumour 11. to go through necessary analyses 12. to be discharged from the hospital 13. to catch mumps 14. a nervous break down 15. bedside manners 16. to fee feverish 17. to nip a disease in the bud 18. to sneeze 19. to keep the temperature down 20. tonsils 21. to put a dressing (on) 22. height gauge 23. extraction forceps 24. convalescent 25. spa town

 

 


Exercise 5. Translate form Russian into English.

1. В детстве мой сын перенес ветрянку, корь, воспаление легких, скарлатину и свинку. Я просиживала ночи у его кровати. 2. Он жалуется, что у него болит желудок. Я думаю ему надо обратиться к врачу. 3. Если у тебя температура, выпей аспирин, чтобы сбить жар. 4. Вот рецепт. Нужно принимать эту микстуру три раза в день по столовой ложке на голодный желудок. 5. Врач попросил пациента раздеться до пояса и осмотрел его. 6. Вы сможете поговорить с врачом, когда он окончит осмотр. 7. У нее ужасно болит зуб. – Пусть она прополощет его теплой водой с содой, а завтра обратиться к врачу. 8. У меня болит горло и я сильно кашляю. – Вы что-нибудь принимаете? – Вечером я выпила стакан горячего молока с медом и маслом и сделала компресс на горло. Но это не очень помогло. 9. У меня очень болит нижний зуб справа. – Да, там очень большое дупло. Нужно сделать рентгеновский снимок. 10. Говорят на днях он выписывается из больницы. 11. Что тебе сказал врач? – Он сказал, что ничего страшного, но гланды воспалены, с ними надо что-то делать.

Exercise 6.Talk it over with your classmates.

A. 1. What infectious childhood diseases could you possibly name? 2. Why are they called catching? 3. What are the symptoms of scarlet fever? /mumps? /whooping cough? /measles? 4. What diseases did you suffer from in childhood? 5. Can measles and scarlet fever be contracted from a third person? 6. Why is whooping cough considered to be a frightening disease to nurse a child through? 7. Are various inoculations and vaccinations effective? Why? 8. What is the commonest childhood disease nowadays.

B. 1. What do you feel when you have a flu? 2. How does a sick person look? 3. Do you lose appetite when you are unwell? 4. Is a person ill with the flu usually put on a diet? 5. Do people in this country get their pay when they are on sick leave? 6. Who is treated at the policlinic and who is treated at the hospital? 7. What measures are usually taken to check the spread of an epidemic of grippe? 8. What disease is thought to be most fatal nowadays?

C. 1. Are you subject to colds / coughs / sore throats / headaches? 2. What is the best remedy for a sore throat / headache / cold in your opinion? 3. Are bad colds catching? 4. What do you do when you fall ill? 5. What is generally done on urgent occasions? 6. In what cases is hospitalisation necessary? 7. Have you ever called an ambulance? 8. Some people hate consulting a doctor, don’t they? And you? 9. What does a doctor do when he comes to examine you? 10. Do you always keep to bed when you are unwell? 11. What are you supposed to do to avoid complications?

D. 1. What must one do to keep fit? 2. A regular check-up helps to prevent an illness, doesn’t it? 3. Have you ever got through a procedure yourself? When? 4. Does your University have a special medical service of its own or do you have to visit local clinic in case of illness? 5. Do you think sports should be part of our life? Why?

E. 1. Should you ever consult a dentist, if your teeth are quite sound? 2. Do your teeth cause you any troubles? 3. Is it painful to treat an infected tooth? 4.Does the doctor give you an injection before filling a tooth cavity? 5. Why do many people put off going to the dentist’s till they develop really bad toothache? 7. Do you think diet to be an important factor in keeping tooth sound?

F. What would you do about the following ailments: a headache, a cold, indigestion, a cut finger, chapped lips, sunburn, broken leg.

 

Exercise 7. Translate from Russian into English.

Коклюш передается от одного человека другому через кашель. От заражения до появления первых признаков болезни проходит до двух недель. Сначала это просто недомогание с небольшим насморком и кашлем.

Постепенно кашель усиливается, дети становятся раздражительными и капризными. B конце второй недели кашель начинает сочетаться со спазмами. Peбeнoк делает глубокий свистящий вдох, затем следует серия судорожных кашлeвыx толчков. Число таких циклов во время приступа может доходить до 15. Иногда в конце приступа бывает рвота. Во время приступа ребенок возбужден, может метаться, лицо синюшное, Вены шеи расширены, выпирают. Язык высовывается изо рта. Kaжeтcя, приступ кашля готов вывернуть ребенка наизнанку. И таких приступов в сутки может быть от 5 до 50! Taк проходит З-4 недели, затем приступы становятся реже, и, наконец, исчезают. Хотя «обычный» кашель может держаться до полугода.

Возбудителем коклюша является короткая палочка с закругленными концами. Чтобы уберечь детей от ее зловредного влияния, начиная с трехмесячного возраста, им делают прививку.

(Я познаю мир. Медицина)

Exercise 8. Make up your dialogues to the suggested topics.

Suggested topics and stages for actions:

1. At the doctor’s

· A patient enters the room and tells the doctor what he (she) is suffering from.

· The doctor asks the patient to strip to the waist and examines him (her).

· The patient asks the doctor what’s wrong with him. He seems to be worried.

· The doctor tries to comfort the patient and writes out a prescription.

2. At the bedside

· A girl complains of a sore throat.

· Her mother is worried. She takes her temperature, its normal. Her throat is all right.

· Then the girl pretends to have a stomach-ache and a headache, to be sick and giddy.

· Her mother understands her tricks and orders her to go to school.

 

Exercise 9. Role-play these interactions with your fellow-students.

1. You are on a tour in Great Britain. One of the tourists has a very bad cold. A doctor is called and you have to act as an interpreter.

2. You meet an acquaintance of yours, a young doctor. Yesterday he (she) had his (her) first patient.

3. You drop in at your friend’s to find her/him in a pretty bad state.

4. You are running a bad temperature. The physician comes to your place to examine you.