Translate the text with the help of a dictionary. Part С is to be translated in writing.
A. There were many forces at work which made inevitable the discovery of America about the time Columbus accomplished it. In the two or three centuries prior to Columbus' time the merchants had built a number of great cities and commercial centres all over Europe from England to Russia. They tried to develop trade all over the known world and demanded the establishment of new sea routes, the more so it became particularly difficult to trade with the East when the Turks captured Constantinople.
B. The end of the 15th century was also a time of tremendous intellectual ferment. The long and heavy grip of the Catholic Church upon the mind of man was being shaken by developing capitalism. Science and art were growing in the way unknown since the Golden Age in Greece. It was a period of Leonardo da Vinci and many other prominent artists and scientists. The Renaissance [ri'neisans] was in full bloom. It was a time of technical progress and inventions.
C. The Church burned John Huss in Bohemia in 1415, but the economic, political and religious revolt of growing capitalism could not be put down even by such measures. In 1517 Marthin Luther, a learned monk,
put his famous theses on the door of his church in Wittenberg - an act signalizing the fact that the Reformation was under way, that capitalism was beginning to overthrow feudalism which, with its system of land tenure,
the peasants' dues and tolls and the feudal lords' power, hindered economic development.
A) Read and translate the six items given below; b) Answer the questions; c) Study the words in italics and use them in sentences of your own. For reference see the list of words.
The discovery of New York was made in 1609 when an English captain, Henry Hudson, in the service of Holland, crossed the Atlantic and sailed up the river which bears his name. The Dutch West India Company established a colony on Manhattan Island, inhabited by the Indians, to develop the fur trade. The Island was bought from the Indians for trinkets worth of 24 dollars. The settlement, which then was named New Amsterdam, grew until it had about ten thousand inhabitants. But in 1664, when England and Holland were at war, English ships took possession of it and changed its name into New York after Duke of York, King Charles' brother.
1) Whom was New York discovered by?
2) What did the Dutch Company establish on the island?
3) What name did the settlement bear?
4) What happened in the year 1664?
5) Who took possession of the settlement?
In the 16th century capitalist industry in Britain began to develop. Rich craftsmen enlarged their workshops and wealthy merchants set up big enterprises.
So workshops grew into large enterprises - manufactures where the factory owners exploited the labour of hired workmen. Unlike serfs, the hired workers had personal freedom but they possessed neither land, nor implements. Bringing workers together in a factory made it easier to divide up the work between different groups of workers. This led to the division of labour, and stimulated a rise in labour productivity. New classes were coming into being: the bourgeoisie and the wage workers whose labour was more productive than that of the artisans.
1) How did manufactures come into existence?
2) Whose labour did the factory owners exploit?
3) Was the division of labour practised in capitalist enterprises?
4) What new classes were coming into being as a result of capitalist development?
In the 16th century in Britain it became more profitable for the landowners to breed sheep than to grow grain. Being in need of large pastures the landowners seized the common and the waste lands. Moreover, they seized the farmers' plots of land and forced them to leave the places they lived in. Meanwhile the nobles enclosed the lands they captured with fences and ditches. Thousands of people, evicted from their plots of land, left their home villages and became vagrants and beggars. The expropriated farmers repeatedly rose up in arms against the enclosures, but the rebels were defeated. The government made cruel laws against vagrants and paupers.
As a result of the enclosures there appeared an army of free people who had neither land nor implements of labour.
1) For what purpose did the landowners seize the farmers' plots of land?
2) What did they do with the farmers who lived in the places of eviction?
3) What did the people evicted from their plots of land become?
4) Did they start a fight against the enclosures?
5) What did the enclosures result in?
The 15th-16th centuries saw a considerable technical progress in Western Europe. It was justly called the era of inventions. A hydraulic engine came to be used in various crafts. Some innovations occurred in metallurgy. There was noticeable progress in shipbuilding. Fire-arms were invented. One of the greatest discoveries, however, was the invention of printing in Europe. The first printed book was produced by Gutenberg, the inventor, in about 1445. Needless to say, the appearance of printed books stimulated a rapid advance
in education, science and literature.
1) What were the 15th-16th centuries marked by?
2) What great inventions of that time do you know?
3) Who invented printing in Europe?
4) What effects did the book printing have on other spheres of human life?
Before paper was invented people wrote their thoughts on various other materials. The ancient Babylonians used clay on which they made cuneiform marks. A letter was, therefore, made in the form of a brick. History was engraved on stone monuments and tablets. Later on the Romans and Greeks scratched the words on soft wax with a metal pen. The Egyptians were the first to make paper from the papyrus plant. Originally, books were made in the form of a roll like a wall-map. They were so valuable that the bibles were fastened up in the churches by chains so that they could not be stolen. Historically, the book is of international character: papyrus paper came from Egypt, the alphabet was offered by the Greeks who had borrowed it from the Phoenicians, printing was invented in China.
1) What materials did people use before paper was invented?
2) What was history engraved on?
3) What country was the first to make paper from the papyrus plant?
4) What did the first books look like?
5) Why do you think that the first books were valuable?
6) Historically speaking, the book bears an international character. What is implied by this statement?
The Church was interested in preserving and strengthening the feudal system. The clergy tried to convince the peasants and artisans that the feudal system had been established by God and would exist forever.
Generally speaking, the Church was the mainstay of feudalism. The Pope's power was particularly great. Here is what the Pope himself said about it: "The Pope can depose emperors. No man can cancel the Pope's
decrees, but the Pope can repeal everybody's decree and decisions. No one can pass judgement on the Pope. Anyone who disagrees with the Pope is no Catholic." The Church persecuted the disobedient (the heretics) mercilessly, tortured them and burnt them at the stake.
1) What role did the Church play in the feudal system?
2) What rights did the Pope claim?
3) In what way did the Church fight against its enemies?