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Текст 2.



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Текст 1.

WHAT IS A MANAGER?

A “manager” is often called a “director”, “administrator”, and “president”. The term “manager” is used more often in profit-making organizations, while the others are used in government and non-profit organizations such as universities, hospitals and social work agencies.

“Managers” are people who are responsible for making and carrying out decisions within a certain system. A personnel manager directly supervises people in an organization. Financial manager is a person who is responsible for finance. Sales manager is responsible for selling of goods.

Almost everything a manager does, involves decision-making. When a problem exists a manager has to make a decision to solve it. In decision-making there is always some uncertainty and risk.

Management is a variety of specific activities. Management is a function of planning, organizing, coordinating, directing and controlling.

Managing is a responsible and hard job. There is a lot to be done and little time to do it. In all organizations managerial efficiency depends on manager’s direct personal relationships, hard work and preference for active tasks.

The characteristics of management often vary according to national culture; it can be different in training, leading people and how they approach their jobs.

Managers are responsible for leading the people directly under them, who are called subordinates. They must use their authority, the right to take decisions and give orders. Managers often delegate authority. This means that employees at lower levels in the company hierarchy can use their initiative that is make decisions without asking their manager.

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Текст 2.

A manager is a person who manages or is in charge of something. Managers can control departments in companies, or guide the people who work for them. Managers must often make decisions about things.

According to Henri Fayol managers must be able to do:

  1. planning
  2. organizing
  3. leading
  4. coordinating
  5. controlling

Planning is the way most organizations work to do big projects. It is thinking about what needs to happen, and then making a detailed plan.

In big organisations planning is a main activity. It combines forecasting developments with scenarios of how to react to them.

Forecasting is predicting what the future will look like, whereas planning predicts what the future should look like.

Organizing is putting things together in a logical order.

Leading is the act of leading a group of people to achieve some specific goal.

Coordinating is the act of coordinating people’s activities.

Controlling is when a person tells another to do something, and they do it.