Symbol of all evil assumes the living shape of the Jew.
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The conceptualisation of an enemy as ‘evil’ also occurs in the discourse
of George Bush Senior:
We are resolute and resourceful. If we can selflessly confront evil for the sake
Of good in a land so far away, then surely we can make this land all it should
Be. (January 1991)
However, it was not one that was developed in his discourse. It was not
until a camp was set up at Gauntanamo Bay for ‘detainees’ from the war
Against the Taliban in Afghanistan that we have the powerful visual
evocations of the Nazi concentration camps: humans incarcerated in
Although depersonification is not uncommon as a rhetorical strategy
for powerful evaluations of political opponents as ‘enemies’, it has been
Widely criticised in anti-war discourse for the use of inanimate notions
such as ‘collateral damage’ to refer to civilian victims of bombing. I have
Also shown how it was commonly found (along with rebirth metaphors)
In European Fascist discourse of the twentieth century. Evidently, there is
A danger when using conceptual metaphors such as TERRORISTS ARE
ANIMALS and TERRORISTS ARE PARASITES that they become means of
Conceptualisation and therefore provide the basis for political action.
Politicians and Rhetoric
It was only by thinking of Jews as if they were animals or insects that
Permitted those in charge of following instructions to implement the
policy of the Final Solution. Similarly in Iraq during the post-‘victory’
Phase, photographic evidence of the physical and sexual degradation of
Prisoners by their guards appears to have removed any concept of the
Human rights of prisoners of war. 3 Depersonification is a linguistic strategy
For providing the motivation and the moral climate in which such a
Practice can be normalised. Critical Metaphor Analysis is a means of
Identifying and evaluating leadership policy and is a form of linguistic
Investigation into the worst abuses of humanity.
Metaphors from the domain of finance occur frequently in the George
Bush Junior corpus but less commonly in that of George Bush Senior.
They are indicated by words such as ‘debt’, ‘price’, ‘cost’, ‘stake’ etc. and
Imply a basic conceptualisation of the relation between individuals and
Between nations as based on monetary transactions. They are rooted in
An underlying concept MORAL ACTIONS ARE FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS and
Are a very clear illustration of what I have described in the previous
chapter as the creation of a marketplace of ethics:
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