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natural complexes





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Environment

ü ADJ. natural

global, world

local

healthy

ü VERB +ENVIRONMENT

preserve, protect, safeguard

clean up, improve

have an impact on

damage, harm, pollute

ü ENVIRONMENT + NOUN

agency, committee, department, group, ministry

minister, official, spokesman, spokeswoman

policy

conference

protection

issues

ü PREP.

in the

ü PHRASES

conservation/ protection of the environment

damage to the environment

harmful to the environment

pollution of the environment

 

bioenvironment

environmental ills

 

· Air

ü ADJ. hot, warm

chill, cold, cool, crisp

clean, clear, fresh, pure

fresh forest air

balmy air

bracing air

industrially polluted

sweet

foul/foul-smelling, polluted, stale

damp, humid

dry

still

thin

thick (with smoke)

country, mountain, sea

evening, morning, night

ü QUANT.

blast, gust

current

breath

ü VERB + AIR

breathe (in), gulp in, suck in

fight for, gasp for

smell, sniff

fill, hang in

restore air

ü AIR + VERB

blow, rise, waft

ü AIR + NOUN

pollution

quality

pressure

current

ü PREP. in/into the

through the

ü PHRASES

in the open air

 

bad air quality

monitor air quality

 

· Water

 

ü ADJ. deep, shallow

clear, crystal-clear

muddy, murky, stagnant

contaminated

calm, placid, still

choppy, rough, stormy

dangerous, safe

flood

rising

bathing

ü VERB + WATER

to foul water

ü WATER + NOUN

water shortage

water crisis

water tourism

sports

route

ü PREP.

by

in the

on the

through the

under the

ü PHRASES

the water’s edge

 

groundwater depletion

wastewater treatment

underwater world

 

natural complexes

 

river

ü ADJ. broad, great, large, long, mighty, wide

little, narrow, short, small

deep

shallow, high

low fast-flowing

slow-moving, sluggish

winding

swollen

navigable

calm

spectacular

ü VERB + RIVER

cross, ford, get across

bridge

dam

dredge драгировать (дночерпатель)

navigate

ü RIVER + VERB

flow, run, wind

rise

be in flood, burst its banks, flood (sth), overflow sth

dry up

ü RIVER + NOUN

bank

water

valley

system

crossing

traffic

course

ü PREP.

across a/the ~

along a/the ~

down a/the ~

down by a/the ~

down to a/the ~

into a/the ~

on a/the ~

up a/the ~

~ of (figurative) a river of lava

ü PHRASES

the banks/bottom/middle/side/surface of a river

a bend in the river

the course/direction of a river

the river’s edge

 

lake

ü ADJ. big, great, huge, large

little, small

deep

shallow

beautiful, lovely

blue

freshwater, salt

frozen

artificial, man-made, ornamental

inland, mountain

boating

blue-eyed

extremely picturesque

ü VERB + LAKE

cross

ü LAKE + NOUN

bed, water

ü PREP.

across a/the ~

around/round a/the ~

at a/the ~

in a/the ~

into a/the ~

on a/the ~

ü PHRASES

the edge/middle/shores/side/surface of the lake

 

lapping waves

dimples of lakes

pride of the country

unique ecological environment of the Lakeland

 

▪ pond

the pond is an object of attention of the tourists

bog (болото, топь; трясина)

ü ADJ.

vast

stagnant, swampy

peat

unique bogs – the lungs of Europe

ü VERB + BOG

sink into

ü PREP.

in a/the ~

through a/the ~

 

marsh (low poorly drained land that is sometimes flooded and often lies at the edge of lakes, streams, etc) 1) болото; травяное болото 2) марши (плодородные низменности)

river marsh пойменное болото

salt marsh солончаковое болото

sedge marsh осоковое болото

ü ADJ. Coastal, salt

freshwater

grazing

ü VERB + MARSH

drain, reclaim

ü MARSH + NOUN

plant

ü PREP.

in/on a/the ~

 

swamp 1) a) permanently waterlogged ground that is usually overgrown and sometimes partly forested (болото; лесное болото; топь, трясина)

alder swamp ольховое болото

back swamp пойменное болото

lowland swamp низинное болото

mangrove swamp мангровое болото

peat swamp торфяное болото, торфяник

reed swamp тростниковое болото

salt swamp солончаковое болото

transitional swamp переходное болото

upland swamp верховое болото

wood swamp лесное болото

 

forest

ü ADJ. dense, thick

impenetrable

dark

native, natural

ancient, primeval, virgin

rain, tropical

coniferous (хвойный), deciduous (лиственный)

beech (бук), birch, pine, etc.

ü QUANT.

stretch, track

ü VERB + FOREST

plant

chop down, clear, cut down, destroy

be covered by/in/with

ü FOREST + VERB

stretch

ü FOREST + NOUN

tree

floor

land

fire

ü PREP.

in a/the ~

through a/the ~

ü PHRASES

the edge/heart/middle of the forest

 

 

unique area of woods

rich in wildlife

unique region of primeval forests

“green belts”

leafy canopy of forests

monumental forestry

native trees

mossy trees

unique pearl of Belarus

 

 

Meadow

 

· Land

untouched

ecologically clean

to restore land

land pollution

soil erosion

indiscriminate dumping of materials on land

to cultivate

to irrigate

 

fields

boundless up to horizon fields

mountains

ice-covered

snow-covered

to climb a mountain

· Tourism

 

ü ADJ. international, overseas

mass, package

expanding, increased

eco-friendly, ecological, environmental,green, sustainable

farm

agro tourism

therapeutic tourism

“green” tourism

recreational tourism

health tourism

ü VERB + TOURISM

boost, increase, promote

be dependent upon, depend on, rely on

ü TOURISM + VERB

boom, increase

decline, fall, slump

ü TOURISM + NOUN

business, enterprise, industry, market, sector

development, promotion

strategy

officer

potential

ü PREP.

through ~

ü PHRASES

a downturn/decline/drop in tourism

the development/promotion of tourism

earnings/income/revenue from tourism

the growth in/of tourism

the impact of tourism

an increase/a rise in tourism

 

Landscape

astounding natural landscape

picturesque

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