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MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS





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Materials Science and Technology is the study of ma­terials and how they can be fabricated to meet the needs of modern technology. Using the laboratory techniques and knowledge of physics, chemistry, and metallurgy, scientists are finding new ways of using metals, plastics and other materials.

Engineers must know how materials respond to exter­nal forces, such as tension, compression, torsion, bend­ing, and shear. All materials respond to these forces by elastic deformation. That is, the materials return their original size and form when the external force disap­pears. The materials may also have permanent deforma­tion or they may fracture. The results of external forces are creep and fatigue.

Compression is a pressure causing a decrease in vol­ume. When a material is subjected to a bending, shear­ing, or torsion (twisting) force, both tensile and compressive forces are simultaneously at work. When a metal bar is bent, one side of it is stretched and subjected to a tensional force, and the other side is compressed.

Tension is a pulling force; for example, the force in a cable holding a weight. Under tension, a material usu­ally stretches, returning to its original length if the force does not exceed the material's elastic limit. Under larger tensions, the material does not return completely to its original condition, and under greater forces the mate­rial ruptures.

Fatigue is the growth of cracks under stress. It oc­curs when a mechanical part is subjected to a repeated or cyclic stress, such as vibration. Even when the maximum stress never exceeds the elastic limit, failure of the ma­terial can occur even after a short time. No deformation is seen during fatigue, but small-localized cracks develop and propagate through the material until the remain­ing cross-sectional area cannot support the maximum stress of the cyclic force.

Creep is a slow, permanent deformation that results from steady force acting on a material. Materials at high temperatures usually suffer from this deformation. The gradual loosening of bolts and the deformation of components of machines and engines are all the exam­ples of creep.

bar — брусок, прут fracture- перелом, излом

compression — сжатие tension - напряженность

creep — ползучесть torsion - кручение

fatigue - усталость металла twisting - закручивание, изгиб

rupture – разрыв

 

ТЕСТ ПО ТЕКСТУ

Выберите правильный ответ и переведите предложения на русский язык:

3.1. All materials respond to external forces … .

a) by resistance

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