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B) by elastic deformation





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c) by fracture

 

3.2. Compression is a pressure … .

a) causing a decrease in vol­ume

b) causing an increase in volume

c) causing small cracks

 

3.3. Under tension, a material usu­ally … if the force does not exceed

the material's elastic limit.

a) stretches, losing its original length

b) stretches, increasing its original length

c) stretches, returning to its original length

3.4.Fatigue oc­curs when a mechanical part is subjected to … .

a) a steady stress

b) high temperature

c) a repeated or cyclic stress

 

3.5. Creep occurs when material … .

a) is subjected to twisting

b) suffers from steady force acting on it

c) is subjected to cyclic stress

Контрольное задание № 2

Для того чтобы правильно выполнить задание 2, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка:

1. Числительные: количественные, порядковые, простые дроби, десятичные дроби, проценты.

2. Простые неличные формы глагола: Participle I (Pre­sent Participle), Participle II (Past Participle) в функциях оп­ределения и обстоятельства, части сказуемого.

 

ВАРИАНТ № 1

I. Напишите цифрами следующие числительные и действия c ними:

 

1.1. three quarters ______________________________________________

1.2. five and two thirds __________________________________________

1.3. nought point nought four _____________________________________

1.4. thirty seven point one nought five ______________________________

1.5. eight by two equals four _____________________________________

1.6. six multiplied by two is twelve_________________________________

1.7. four from ten is six _________________________________________

1.8. ten to the seventh power _____________________________________

1.9. the square root of ax ______________________________________

1.10. nine degrees below zero______________________________________

II. Выпишите предложения, содержащие причастия I и II в функции обстоятельства. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

2.1. The machine tool was mounted on a special work bench.

2.2. Going into chemical combinations elements entirely change their properties.

2.3. Cooper is of great value, being a good conductor of electricity.

2.4. We are making an interesting experiment now.

2.5. Unless tasted the machine must not be put into operation.

2.6. They were analyzing the results of their research from 4 to 6 o’clock yesterday.

2.7. When heated the polymer changed its properties completely.

 

III. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст, затем выполните тест по тексту:

 

Applications of Automation and Robotics in Industry

Manufacturing is one of the most important application area for automation technology. There are several types of automation in manufacturing.

1. Fixed automation, sometimes called «hard automation» refers to automated machines in which theequipment configuration allows fixedsequence of processing operations. These machines are programmed by their design to make only certain processing operations. They are not easily changed over from one product style to another. This form of automation needs high initial investments and high production rates. That is why it is suitable for products that are made in large volumes. Examples of fixed automation are machining transfer lines found in the automobile industry, automaticassembly machines and certain chemical processes.

2. Programmable automation is a form of automation for producing products in largequantities, ranging from several dozen to several thousand units at a time. For each new product the production equipment must be reprogrammed and changed over. This reprogramming and changeover take a period ofnon-productive time. Pro­duction rates in programmable automation are generally lower than in fixed automation A numerical-control machine-tool is a good example of programmable automation. The program is coded in computer memory for each differ­ent product style and the machine-tool is controlled by the computer program.

3. Flexible automation is a kind of programmable au­tomation. Programmable automation requires time to reprogram and change over the production equipment for each series of new product. This is lost production time, which is expensive. In flexible automation the number of products is limited so that the changeover of the equip­ment can be done very quickly and automatically. The reprogramming of the equipment in flexible automation is done at a computer terminal without using the pro­duction equipment itself. Flexible automation allows a mixture of different products to be produced one right after another.

Пояснения к тексту:

Rate – скорость, темп

Assembly machines – сборочные машины

Changeover – переход, переналадка

ТЕСТ ПО ТЕКСТУ

Выберите правильный ответ на вопросы по содержанию текста и переведите предложения на русский язык:

3.1. What is one of the limitations of hard automation?

a) The changeover of the equipment can be done very quickly.

b) The changeover of the equipment cannot be done very quickly.

c) The changeover of the equipment cannot be done at all.

3.2. Is it possible to use hard automation technology to make different processing

operations?

a) These machines allow making different processing operations.

b) These machines allow making only certain processing operations.

c) These machines allow making only ten processing operations.

3.3. How many units at a time can be produced using programmable automation

technology?

a) It is possible to produce several dozen units at a time.

b) It is possible to produce several units at a time.

c) It is possible to produce from several dozen to several thousand units at

a time.

3.4. What kind of automation requires little time to change over the equipment?

a) Fixed automation

b) Programmable automation

c) Flexible automation

3.5. Why is the number of products limited in flexible automation?

a) It is limited because this form of automation needs high initial investments.

b) It is limited to change over the equipment quickly and automatically.

c) It is limited so that to reprogram the production equipment.

 

ВАРИАНТ № 2

 

I. Напишите цифрами следующие числительные и действия c ними:

1.1. seven and a half ______________________________________________

1.2. two fourths __________________________________________________

1.3. nought point one nought six ____________________________________

1.4. ninety three point eight four six __________________________________

1.5. twelve by four equals three _____________________________________

1.6. five multiplied by seven is thirty five______________________________

1.7. seven from fifteen is eight ______________________________________

1.8. ten to the third power __________________________________________

1.9. the square root of ay___________________________________________

1.10. eleven degrees below zero ______________________________________

II. Выпишите предложения, содержащие причастия I и II в функции определения. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

2.1. The boiling water changes into steam.

2.2. The experimental flexible line will be working for two hours on Wednesday.

2.3. The machine parts lie on a moving platform.

2.4. The fibres produced by our shop are of improved quality.

2.5. One machine tool is being worked at in our laboratory.

2.6. The device invented showed good performance.

2.7. They have considerably developed the engine.

III. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст, затем выполните тест по тексту:

 

AUTOMATED PRODUCTION LINES

An automated production line consists of a series of workstations connected by a transfer system to move parts between the stations. This is an example of fixed automation, since these lines are set up for long produc­tion runs, making large number of product units and running for several years between changeovers. Each station is designed to perform a specific processing op­eration, so that the part or product is constructed stepwise as it progresses along the line. A raw work part enters at one end of the line, proceeds through each workstation and appears at the other end as a completed product.

Modern automated lines are controlled by program­mable logic controllers, which are special computers that can perform timing and sequencing functions required to operate such equipment. Automated production lines are utilized in many industries, mostly automobile, where they are used for processes such as machining and pressworking.

Machining is a manufacturing process in which metal is removed by a cutting or shaping tool, so that the remain­ing work part is the desired shape. Machinery and motor components are usually made by this process. In many cases, multiple operations are required to completely shape the part. If the part is mass-produced, an automated transfer line is often the most economical method of pro­duction. Many separate operations are divided among the workstations.

Pressworking operations involve the cutting and forming of parts from sheet metal. Several presses are connected together in se­quence by handling mechanisms that transfer the par­tially completed parts from one press to the next, thus creating an automated pressworking line.

Пояснения к тексту:

Machining – механическая обработка

Cutting tool – режущий инструмент

In sequence – один за другим

ТЕСТ ПО ТЕКСТУ

Выберите правильный ответ и переведите предложения на русский язык:

3.1. Workstations are connected by a transfer system … .

a) for delivering the components

b) to produce more units

c) to move parts between the stations

3.2. Automated production lines make large number of product units and run for …

a) several years between changeovers.

b) about ten years between changeovers

c) several months between changeovers

3.3. A finished part is produced … .

a) with each third cycle of the line

b) at the end of the working day

c) with each cycle of the line

3.4. Multiple operations are required … .

a) to partially shape the part

b) to completely shape the part

c) to improve the part

3.5. Several presses are connected together … .

a) in sequence by transfers

b) in sequence by handling mechanisms.

c) in sequence by drafting machines

 

 

 

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