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Электроника

Processing hardware





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The purpose of processing hardware is retrieve, inter­pret and direct the execution of software instructions provided to the computer. The most common components of processing hardware are the Central Processing Unit and main memory.

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer. It reads and interprets software instructions and coordinates the processing activities that must take place. The design of the CPU affects the processing power and the speed of the computer, as well as the amount of main memory it can use effectively. With a well-designed CPU in your computer, you can perform highly sophisti­cated tasks in a very short time.

Memory is the system of component of the computer in which information is stored. There are two types of computer memory: RAM and ROM.

RAM (random access memory) is the volatile compu­ter memory, used for creating loading, and running pro­grams and for manipulating and temporarily storing data;

ROM (read only memory) is nonvolatile, nonmodifiable computer memory, used to hold programmed in­structions to the system.

The more memory you have in your computer, the more operations you can perform.

 

5. WHO DISCOVERED ELECTRICITY?

The story of the discovery of electricity is connected with the name of Thales, the Greek philosopher. The story goes that one day Thales rubbed a piece of amber against his sleeve and found to his great surprise that it attracted small bits of dried leaves. After further experimenting he concluded that this attractive force was a property that amber alone possessed.He called this characteristic "electricity" because the Greek word for amber was electron.

Thales' great discovery remained a curiosity for more than twothousand years. Then many other substances were found to have this curious property of electricity too. Naturally the peopleof the past had no idea of what electricity was. They thought of it as "rays" or "stream" that passed from the rubbed material. There were scientists who thought electric­ity to be a sort of "fluid" that flowed through wires as water flows through pipes. Later many of them found out that elec­tricity was made of tiny particles of some kind. In this way they tried to separate electricity into individual particles. There were some attempts to weigh a single particle of elec­tricity and calculate its electric charge. This was one of the most delicate weighing jobs ever done by a man, for a single electric particle weighs only about half a millionth of a mil­lionth of a millionth of a millionth of a millionth of a pound. To make up a pound, it would take more of those particles than there are drops of water in the Atlantic Ocean. Now we know these electric particles to be electrons.

When a large number of electrons break away from their atoms and move through the wire, we describe this action by saying that electricity is flowing through the wire and the electrical "fluid" that scientists of the past talked about is nothing else than electrons flowing along a wire. A lot of scientists worked in the field of electricity doing their best to make the life of people good and happy.

 

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