A hotel is a temporary home for people who are travelling. In a hotel the traveller can rest and has access to food and drink. The hotel may also offer facilities for recreation, such as a swimming pool, a golf course or a beach. In many cases the hotel also provides free space for the traveller's means of transportation. All of these services are designed to accommodate the traveller, so the hotel business is often referred to asthe accommodation industry.
Travel and hotels have always been closely related. In Europe and America, inns and taverns were spaced along the roads at the distance a horse could travel in a day. The inns were primitive by modern standards. The traveller usually had to share his bed with at least one other person, and аs many as four other persons in some remote areas. The old-fashioned inns, however, did provide food and shelter for both men and horses and therefore became a symbol for hospitality. Indeed, the word "inn" has been used recently by many modern hotels and motels.
Modern mass transportation, that is, the movement of large numbers of people at relatively low prices, began with the development of the railroads in the 19th century. Up to that time, accommodations had been provided by country inns or by family-owned and -operated hotels in the cities. As the railroads carried larger numbers of people further and more rapidly, large hotels were constructed near the train stations. The cluster of hotels around Grand Central terminal in New York is a good surviving example of this stage of development of the hotel industry.
The other means of transportation - the automobile and the airline - resulted in the growth of corresponding accommodations facilities. In the case of automobile, motels that serve people travelling by car have sprung up along highways all over the world.
The word "motel" was created by combining motor and hotel. When automobiles were first used, flimsy and inexpensive tourist cabins were built beside the highways. Then, as people demanded greater comfort, the cabins were replaced by tourist courts and then by the modern hotels.
The airline extended the distances that people could travel in a short period. For the accommodations industry it was a boom in the construction of resort hotels. A resort is a place to which people travel for recreation. It may offer mountain scenery, the combination of sun and sea, or features that are entirely man-made, like Disneyland in California.
All hotels do not serve the same clientele, that is, the same kind of guests. In fact, it is possible to place hotels in four broad categories. The first is the commercial hotel, which provides services essentially for transients, many of them travelling on business. Many city hotels and diversely located motels fall into this group. The second category is resort hotels. Located in vacation areas, they often provide recreational facilities of their own as well. A third type of hotel aims its services largely at the convention trade. Conventions are meetings, usually held yearly, of various business or professional groups. Not so long ago, most conventions were held in large urban centres such as New York and Washington D.C. The forth category is resident hotels. People who do not wish to keep house themselves can rent accommodations on a seasonal basis or even permanently in many hotels.
No firm distinction exists between the different kinds of hotels.
Another way of categorising hotels by its quality of service they offer. At the top are the luxury hotels, which generally offer their guests the greatest comfort and convenience possible. At the bottom are those that provide merely a place to sleep.
The larger and more luxurious the hotel, the greater the variety of jobs that it offers. Nevertheless, the administration and organization of a small hotel is similar to a large one. Engineering and maintenance for a small establishment may be done by contract with local firms, whereas a large hotel will hire its own staff for these functions.
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ЗАДАНИЯ И МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ К ВЫПОЛНЕНИЮ КОНТРОЛЬНЫХ РАБОТ ПО ДИСЦИПЛИНЕ
«Иностранный язык для специальных целей» (английский)
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