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TYPES OF UNEMPLOYMENT





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КОНТРОЛЬНА РОБОТА

з дисципліни „Іноземна мова за професійним спрямуванням”

 

 

Виконав студент 5-го курсу ІЗДН

Рубчинський Антон Семенович

Напрям 6.030503

«Міжнародна економіка»

група ЕМ-501з

 

 

Київ 2015

Варіант 2

TYPES OF UNEMPLOYMENT

Economists distinguish between various types of unemployment, including cyclical unemployment, frictional unemployment, structural unemployment and classical unemployment. Some additional types of unemployment that are occasionally mentioned are seasonal unemployment, and hidden unemployment. Cyclical unemployment refers to unemployment that rises during economic downturns and falls when the economy improves. It gets its name because it varies with the business cycle, though it can also be persistent, as during the Great Depression of the 1930s. In this case, the number of unemployed workers exceeds the number of job vacancies, so that if even all open jobs were filled, some workers would remain unemployed.

Frictional unemployment involves people in the midst of transiting between jobs, searching for new ones. It is sometimes called search unemployment and can be voluntary. New entrants (such as graduating students) and re–entrants (such as former homemakers) can also suffer a spell of frictional unemployment. With frictional unemployment there is a mismatch between the characteristics of supply and demand. Such a mismatch can be related to skills, payment, work time, location, attitude, taste, and a multitude of other factors. Governments will seek ways to reduce unnecessary frictional unemployment through policies including educational advice, training facilities, information on available jobs and workers, combating prejudice, incentives and regulations, relocation of industries and services, etc.

Structural unemployment involves a mismatch between the sufficiently skilled workers looking for jobs and the vacancies available. Even though the number of vacancies may be equal to the number of the unemployed, the unemployed workers lack the skills needed for the jobs — or are in the wrong part of the country or world to take the jobs offered. In the case of classical unemployment the number of job–seekers exceeds the number of vacancies. However, the problem in this situation is that real wages are higher than the market–equilibrium wage. Hidden, or covered, unemployment is the unemployment of potential workers that is not reflected in official unemployment statistics.

Those who have given up looking for work (and sometimes those who are on Government "retraining" programmes) are not officially counted among the unemployed, even though they are not employed. The statistics also do not count the "underemployed" – those with part time or seasonal jobs who would rather have full time jobs. In economics, the term ‘underemployment’ involves a situation in which a person is working, unlike unemployment, where a person who is searching for work cannot find a job.

 

I. Знайдіть у тексті та випишіть еквіваленти таких слів та словосполучень:

Тимчасова незайнятість; приховане безробіття; економічний спад; цикл ділової активності; стійкий; вакансія; залишатися безробітним; добровільна робота; випускник; незбіг; уміння; безліч факторів; навчальні засоби; наявні вакансії; боротьба з упередженнями; стимул; потенційний працівник; офіційна статистика безробіття; програма перепідготовки.

 

Тимчасова незайнятість (seasonal unemployment)

приховане безробіття (Hidden, covered, unemployment)

економічний спад (economic downturns)

цикл ділової активності (the business cycle)

стійкий (persistent)

вакансія (vacancy)

залишатися безробітним (remain unemployed)

добровільна робота (voluntary job)

випускник (graduating students)

незбіг (mismatch)

уміння (skills)

безліч факторів (multitude factors)

навчальні засоби (educational advice)

наявні вакансії (vacancies available)

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