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SOME WAYS OF SENTENCE EXTENSION





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Sentence extension embraces different parentheses and direct address mentioned above (§ 113); it also includes homogeneous parts, appended parts, and different kinds of repetitions.

 

Homogeneous parts

§ 189. Homogeneous parts are two or more componentsof thesentence which are characterized by the following features:

 

1. They are connected by coordination, that is, are of equal syntactical rank. They are connected either by a coordinating conjunction (a), or Joined asyndetically (b).

 

(a) The men were cold and sick and silent.

 

(b) They crawled ahead, waited, listened to the bombardment.

 

2. They have one and the same syntactical function in the sentence and similar syntactical relations with other parts of the sentence.

 

The grass was long and high and wet ——>

           
   
 
   
 
 
 
     
 
 
 
   
 
   

 


——> The grass was

long | and | high | and | wet  

Dora and I ate in silence. ——>

 

——> Dora | and — —> ate in silence. | I

 

The identical syntactical function and thefact that these parts are coordinated make them homogeneous.

 

3. Homogeneous parts are separated from each other by pauses in speech and generally by commas in writing.

 

Gertrude had seen Martin first and noticed the eager, hungry lines of his face, and the desperate, worried

look of his eyes.

 

4. They may differ:

 

a) in their structure

 

I started to kiss Maybelle but couldn’t quite make up my mind.

(The first homogeneous predicate is a compound verbal phasal predicate and the second is a compound

verbal modal predicate.)

She didn’t feel well and stayed in bed.

(The first homogeneous predicate is a compound nominal predicate and the second is a simple verbal

predicate.)

She mumbled and kept staring at the same spot in the book.

(The first homogeneous predicate is a simple verbal predicate and the second is a compound verbal

phasal predicate.)

 

b) in the ways of expression (morphologically)

The Johnsons and I have been to five balls to-night.

(The homogeneous subjects are expressed by a proper noun and a pronoun.)

His voice was loud, ringing, yet strained.

(The homogeneous predicatives are expressed by an adjective, participle I and participle II.)

The Colonel had just finished breakfast and was walking across the compound towards the stables.

(The homogeneous simple predicates are expressed by different verb forms.)

 

From the point of view of their syntactical function there may be:

 

a) homogeneous subjects

You and Tuck have had a nice time together this summer, haven’t you?

He and Sis didn’t discuss such things.

 

b) homogeneous predicates

 

Sis got up and dressed in a hurry and didn’t even put on any lipstick.

When she would turn the pages, she licked her thumb and held out her little finger and turned very

slowly.

 

c) homogeneous predicatives

 

He felt little and worn and helpless.

The question was painful and difficult to ask.

 

d) homogeneous objects (direct and indirect)

 

She had on a sweater and a blue pleated skirt.

All of a sudden I felt mad at myself and the dream and Maybelle and Sucker and every single person I

knew.

 

e) homogeneous attributes

 

He wore a blue striped shirt and grey checked trousers.

 

f) homogeneous adverbial modifiers

 

She had lessons on Tuesday after school and on Sunday afternoons.

 

Homogeneous parts may be connected by different coordinating conjunctions:

a) copulative conjunctions and, nor, neither ... nor, as well as, both ... and, not only ... but also

Neither the wagons nor the howitzer came.

 

b) disjunctive conjunctions or, either ...or

 

I don’t care either for Maybelle or any particular girl any more.

I can get along by myself if Sis or anybody wants to.

 

c) adversative conjunction but and conjunctive adverb yet

 

The old man nodded but did not stop eating.

The story is interesting, yet a little too long.

§ 190. There are, however, cases which look very much like homo­geneous parts but which should be distinguished from them.

They are:

 

1. Different kinds of repetitions which make the utterance more expressive but which name the same notion. Any part of the sentence may be repeated in this way.

 

There were rumours, rumours, rumours.

It’s wonderful, wonderful, wonderful.

I’ll never, never, never go there again.

She is my dear, dear, dear sister.

 

2. Phrases where coordinated nouns refer to one thing or person, such as: my son and heir, their friend and defender, her friend and counselor.

Bread and butter is not enough for breakfast.

 

3. Syntactically indivisible coordinated phrases in which neither component can be removed and which make one indivisible part of the sentence. .

Four and four is eight.

Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen.

 

4. Sentences where the predicate consists of two parts joined by the conjunction and which in this case has no copulative meaning.

 

Try and do it properly Come and help me = Try to do it properly. = Come to help me.

 

The appended modifier (уточнение)

§ 191. Another way of sentence extension, but based on syntactical parallelism or doubling, isan appended modifier, which usually is parenthetic and follows the headword as an afterthought. It is a dependent part, which can refer to practically any part of the sentence and answer the same question, but in a fuller and more detailed way, narrowing or particularizing the notion, expressed by the headword. Therefore the headword is usually more general in meaning than the appended part; very often it is a pronoun, made explicit by the following nouns.

They were alike,his father and he.

 

Being a dependent part of the sentence, the appended modifier still cannot be opposed either to the main, or to secondary parts of the sentence. Its dependence also accounts for the reason why the appended part cannot be considered as homogeneous with the headword. Besides they are very often morphologically inacceptable in the structure of the sentence:

Her face was very pale -a greyish pallor.


His daily trips were really very easy -about a mile and a half.


There was very little to do -parading with the Company inspection, a little drill, orderly officers

 
 


Occasionally.

 

Appended parts may be joined asyndetically, and in this case they are marked off graphically by a comma or a dash. They may be also joined by some conjunctions (and, or), or else by explanatory words (namely, that is, i.e. (= that is), to wit, for example, for instance); also by intensifying particles (almost, especially, etc.).

Language makers,that is ordinary speakers, are not very accurate thinkers.

He had discovered that he had a talent for mathematics -almost a genius for it.

Another way of linking the appended modifier to its headword is the repetition of the same part with modifying words.

My object is secure happiness- the happiness of both of us.

There are three structural types of appended modifiers.

 

1. The most common case of an appended modifier is when a different word or even a different morphological form refers to the headword. Standing for identical notions, the appended part gives a fuller and more detailed nomination of the same concept. In some way appended modifiers of this type resemble appositions, only unlike appositions, they may refer to words of non-nominal nature (verbs, adverbs). Even referring to nouns, they never qualify words, but particularize the notion.

 

Yet it worried her,this queer intensity of Hughie’s.

(appended subject)

 

I used to do as Jean Jacques did— lie down on my boat and get it glide whereas it would.

(appended predicate with dependent words)

 

Hughie wanted to be a star,a footballer in the big league.

(appended predicative)

 

And we’ll talk it over,every bit of it.

(appended object)

 
 


2. Appended modifiers of the second type form a string of homoge­neous parts referring to a headword with a general meaning (thing, problem, question, etc.). Here again the appended modifiers may refer to different parts of the sentence.

 

She kept up her music, she read an awful lot - novels, poetry, all sorts of stuff .

 
 


She was allowed to choose things from the shop; jam, or paste, or biscuits, or the slab cake.

 
 


3. Appended parts of the third type - with a repeated headword - usually have an emphatic force.

               
       


There was only one road: the main road, the road that struck due east.

(appended subject)

       
   


He had his pride of course, the natural pride of a liberal enlighted man.

(appended object)

 
 


He had been a fool, a presumptuous fool.

(appended predicative)

 
 


In silence they stood, in mortal silence.

(appended adverbial modifier)

 
 


The emphatic force is often manifested by adverbs of degree, intensifying particles (just, even, especially, particularly, at least, in particular), or modal words (in fact, indeed, etc.). The explanatory function is carried out by modifying words or attributive clauses.

 

In one place Winterbourne found ... a French-woman with two starved children living in a cottage with nothing but straw -literally nothing but straw...

They assured him that they were the only men- or almost the only men - left alive...

APPENDIX II

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