In the conceptual organization of language there is a certain type of event complex. On the one hand, the event complex can be conceptualized as composed of two simple events and relation between them and expressed by a complex sentence. On the other hand, the event complex can be conceptualized as a single event and expressed by a simple sentence. L. Talmy proposed the term “event integration” to identify the process of conceptual fusion of distinct events into a unitary one.
The different ways of conceptualization of the same content is viewed in the alternative linguistic patterns:
a complex sentence consisting of a main clause (representing a main event) and a subordinate clause that has a subordinating conjunction (representing a subordinate event, which bears a particular kind of semantic relation to the main event);
a simple sentence. Compare:
a) The aerial toppled because I did smth. to it (e.g. because I threw a rock at
b) I toppled the aerial.
Sentence (a) manifests a causal sequence of separate events, sentence (b) manifests the same content as a unitary event.
There is a generic category of complex events that is prone to conceptual integration and representation by a single clause. L. Talmy calls this type of complex events a macro-event and distinguishes the following event- types: Motion, Change of State, Temporal Contouring, Action Correlation, Realization.
Within the macro-event there should be distinguished: a framing event(can be compared to the main event, expressed by the main clause within a complex sentence) and a co-event (can be compared to the subordinate event, expressed by the subordinate clause within a complex sentence).
The framing event constitutes an event schema, which schematizes the macro-event as Motion, Change of State, etc. The co-event constitutes an event of circumstance within the macro-event and bears the support relation to the framing event. The support relations include those of Cause, Manner, Precursion, Enablement, Concomitance, Purpose and Constitutiveness. The most frequent among these are Cause and Manner.
The conceptual structure of the macro-event is mapped onto syntactic structure. In English the framing event (or rather the event schema) is expressed by the satellite, while the co-event – by the main verb. The satellite is the grammatical category of any constituent other than a nominal or prepositional- phrase complement that is in a sister relation to the verb root. In English they are verb particles, prefixes, resultatives (formally adjectives). Although, the event schema is largely expressed by the satellite alone, it can be also expressed by a combination of a prepositional phrase containing a “locative noun”, e.g.:
1. The coin melted free (from the ice).- satellite (resultative);
2. He waved us into the hall. – prepositional phrase, containing a “locative noun”;
3. He came back. – satellite;
4. He drove her home. – satellite.
M o t i o n a s t h e f r a m i n g e v e n t (c o n c e p t u a l p r o t o t y p e