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Прочитайте текст В и скажите, о чем ои.

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ТЕКСТ В Mining and the Environment

It should be stressed that effects of mining on the environment are twofold: firstly, there are direct effects arising from mining as a physical activity, which include disturbances of the land surface and

Unit 9_____________________________________________ 235

accumulation of waste. Secondly, there are indirect destructive effects resulting from treatment of mineral products, such as coal burning, ore processing, smelting and other metallurgical processes. These frequently result in contamination 0f soil and ground water, pollution of the .atmosphere and an adverse effect on vegetation and wildlife. Mining, especially open-pit mining, deforms the surface of the land and creates a large amount of waste materials which contain hazardous substances that pollute water and soil. Water from mining and concentration operations may contaminate the subsoil and rivers into which it flows. Most serious of all are gases produced by smelting, which may not only contaminate the air in the region of the smelter, but affect lakes and vegetation hundreds of miles away through the creation of acid rain.

There is one more point which affects the environment. It concerns the transport of coal representing one component of the complete coal cycle — from exploration and extraction of the fuel, through refining and processing storage and finally its conversion to an end-use product for consumers. Coal transportation is executed by train, truck (lorry), water (on rivers, canals, lakes, etc.) and slurry pipeline or conveyer belt. Environmental impacts of coal transport occur during loading or unloading. For example, rail transport and trucks cause damage to buildings, highways and other places.

Accidents are associated with all forms of transport. Besides, the transport of coal in all its forms involves dust, even though special measures are increasingly taken. Emission of coal particulate and other air pollutants occur during loading, unloading and during coal movement.

At the same time, research and development have provided greatly improved engineering and biological methods of land reclamation. It is necessary to say that land reclamation has emerged as a method of controlling the negative after-effects of extracting coal and other minerals. Land reclamation covers the problem of landscape redevelopment and the restoration of its productivity, ecological integrity, and economic and aesthetic value. The economic uses of reclaimed land depend on natural and socioeconomic factors of the locality. They may be orchards, meadows, parks, swimming pools, etc.

In recent years many industrial countries have developed and adopted laws, national programmes and specific policies for environmental protection. The basis of most laws applicable to the mining industry and its effect on land is to control land management.

236______________________________________________ Unit 9

protect resources and regulate land reclamation and landscape retraction. The principal impact of pollution regulations on the mining industry arises from regulations on emissions of CO2 and other air pollutants from copper, lead and zinc smelters.

40. •) В каждом абзаце текста В найдите предложение, выражающее его
основную мысль. Озаглавьте каждый абзац.

б) Кратко передайте содержание текста В, используя следующие разговор-вые формулы:

The «object of the text is ...; The text deals with ...; It is pointed out that...; It should be stressed that...

41. Составьте 10 вопросов разного типа к тексту В и предложите вашим
товарищам дать на них ответы.

42. Обобщите информацию, полученную вами из текстов А и В. Напиши­
те краткий реферат для реферативного журнала.

43. а) Прочитайте следующее объявление о предстоящей конференции.
Слова для понимания текста:

Implication — вовлечение, причастность appropriate — подходящий, соответствующий legislation — законодательство workshop — секция, семинар issue — вопрос, проблема agenda — повестка дня

Leaders from the international mining, regulatory and environmental communities will meet in October to discuss the most crucial environmental issues facing the mining industry.

Sponsored by Mining Journal LTD and Mining World News, the First International Conference on Mining Environmental Manage­ment will focus on mining-oriented environmental legislation, the financial implications, the available technological solutions and ma­nagement control systems.

The three-day meeting will be held at R's Conference Hall starting with a reception on Sunday evening. The event will comprise three parts: a central conference, plus parallel workshop sessions and an exhibition.

The main Conference will be broken into six halfday sessions which will contain only four or five papers in each session. These 20-minute papers will focus on subjects which are appropriate for executive debate. Each session will end with a 40-minute discussion on the topic.

The six session topics will be: The differing perspectives of the mining industry/environmentalists and developed/developing countries; Cont-

Unit 9


H nvironmental

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