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ECOLOGY, NATURE PROTECTION IN BELARUS





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We all love our native land, remarkably beautiful Belarusian nature with its blue lakes and ribbons of rivers, edged with thick forests, with its endless expanses of fields, meadows and swamps with its varied animal and plant kingdom.

Nature is a source of man's prosperity, we are the children of the nature and we are eternally indebted to it. As everyone admires the beauty of nature each of us must at the same time be filled with the sense of responsibility and concern for its protection, rational and thrifty of its riches.

Nature is an involved complex where all the components are closely inter­mixed and interdependent. That means that humankind must be very careful in usage of natural resources in order to avert the damaging consequences.

But let me go down to the topic of my report — the protection of the environment. A great helper in this noble task is the science of ecology, which reveals the links and makes forecasts if the people start improper business somewhere. Besides the ecology faces different programmes connected with ecological disasters and environmental holocausts like Chernobyl, for example.

Let's have a glimpse of Belarusian nature. The lands and forests are wonderful, we can find broad-leaved groves, pine and fir forests. The republic has over 10,000 lakes. More than 58 types of fish are found in our rives and lakes (pike, roach, bream, crucian, loach, burbot, zender, perch, ruff etc.).

Every autumn 160 types of birds migrate southwards and return to their native parts in spring. And there are 286 types of birds overall in Belarus.

The territory of Belarus is inhabited by 47 types of mammals. Over 40 species are game. There are elk, roe, wild boar, squirrels, hare, fox, marten, mink, otter, beaver etc. A lot of animals and beards, kinds offish and plants are registered in the Belarus Red Data book, and are legally produced against extermination.


The republic has a great number of recreational areas and tourist attrac­tions which gained popularity among the lovers of nature and are visited by thousands of people every year. Everyone knows our famous lake Naroch, or say, Braslavskie lakes, or Buelovezhskaya Pustcha preserve. When people are introduced to these unique parts, to their fauna and flora, they form love of nature and come to realising the need of its conservation.

The problems of environmental protection figure prominent part nowadays in the activities of the of the Belarusian government. But the burden of problems is overwhelming. There are few green zones around the industrial enterprises, our natural resources are not used properly. During the recent years there appeared a lot of harmful works, which pollute the surrounding neigh­bourhood the water in the in rivers. And some more dangerous projects are still in progress.

Let me tell you about some of them. Everybody in Belarus knows that, for example, Orsha is highly industrialised area. Some businessmen together with the Italian partners decided to create a leather - producing joint venture and to construct the plant on the banks of the river Dniper. Of course leather is necessary for producing shoes, jackets, wallets, bags etc. No doubt on the one hand it's necessary and economically incomsome undertaking. But on the other hand the dangerous industrial waste of chemicals. It's dangerous for the composition including different acids and even heavy metals. It could have ruined the nature in the territory of several miles around the factory. Moreover it could pollute the waters of the Dniper and produce harmful effect and even lead to ecological catastrophe.

One knows about the notorious LAVSAN in Mogilev, an enterprise producing the artificial fibres. Beside the industrial output this plant throws into the air very dangerous micro elements which cause the allergic diseases such as asthma, for instance. The necessity of closing and re-profiling of this factory is vivid to everyone, but it still functions.

Not to say about the Chernobyl holocaust. As a result of it a great area of the Belarusian territory became contaminated with radioactive particles. The contamination caused a rapid raise of such incurable illnesses as the cancer. A lot of people died from leukaemia. Nowadays the agricultural production from 30 % of the Belarusian territory is not valid for consumption. The harmful effect of this tragedy according to some estimations amounts to 30 billion $US.

It goes without saying that Belarus faces now a lot of extremely acute ecological problems. The Government commissions are being created, laws adopted, but as for the changes, they are few and hardly radical. The Supreme Executives control over the activities of local executive committees in order to safeguard the nature and protect the environment. But these steps are insuffi­cient. Therefore a great majority of people join all sorts of "GREEN" move­ments and ecological parties. We know the examples when the joint efforts of


the environmentalists and the government realised into some successful projects such as THE SMALL RIVERS in France or THE RAIN in Germany, MICHIGAN in the United States etc.

Only if the ecological coalition of the government and society is created one can expect the positive and fast solution of the ecological problems.

In the conditions of science and technological revolution, when man interferes in the natural process on an increasing scale, the protection of the environment is one of the most vitally topical problems. Its solution involves the efforts of all people inhabiting the planet. And it is a necessary and noble task, because we must preserve the civilisation, and leave for the generations to come fresh air, pure water, national parks and preserves.

Questions:

1. People can not live without nature, can they?

2. Who must take care of nature?

3. Why is there air pollution in large cities?

4. What is the ecological situation in your city? l

5. What did your schoolmates do to protect nature?

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