Ex. 8. Explain the principle of continual improvement.
Ex. 9. Prove the importance of certification.
Ex. 10.Make up a plan covering the main ideas. Discuss the text according to the plan.
Ex. 11. Discussion points:
1. Give examples of (Ukrainian) companies certified with ISO 9001 or ISO 14001.
2. Try to define advantages and disadvantages of first party assessment. Prove your answer.
3. Discuss the future of economic modeling.
Exercise 1. Read and memorize the following words, words combinations and word-groups:
coherent– послідовний, злагоджений
anniversary - річниця
validating – затвердження, надання чинності
sophistication – ускладнення
collaboration – співробітництво
endeavors – спроби, намагання
hub – точка перетину
disseminate – поширювати
jointly – спільно
set– набір, низка
on behalf of –від імені
tackle – братися за (роботу, вирішення проблем)
May 20 is World Metrology Day, commemorating the anniversary of the signing of the Metre Convention in 1875. This treaty provides the basis for a coherent measurement system worldwide. Across the world, national metrology institutes continually advance measurement science by developing and validating new measurement techniques at whatever level of sophistication is needed. They also participate in comparisons coordinated by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) to ensure the reliability of measurement results worldwide.
Many measuring instruments are controlled by law or are subject to regulatory control, for example the scales used to weigh goods in a shop, instruments to measure environmental pollution, or meters used to bill energy. The International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML) develops international Recommendations, the aim of which is to align and harmonize requirements for these types of instruments worldwide.
World Metrology Day recognizes and celebrates the contribution of all the people that work in intergovernmental and national organizations throughout the year on behalf of all. It is an annual event during which more than 80 countries celebrate the impact of measurement on our daily lives. This date was chosen in recognition of the signing of the Metre Convention on 20 May 1875, the beginning of formal international collaboration in metrology. Each year World Metrology Day is organized and celebrated jointly by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) and the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML) with the participation of the national organizations responsible for metrology.
About the BIPM
The signing of the Metre Convention in 1875 created the BIPM and for the first time formalized international cooperation in metrology. The Convention established the International Bureau of Weights and Measures and laid the foundations for worldwide uniformity of measurement in all aspects of our endeavors, historically focusing on and assisting industry and trade, but today just as vital as we tackle the grand challenges of the 21st Century such as climate change, health, and energy. Metrology is defined by the BIPM as "the science of measurement, embracing both experimental and theoretical determinations at any level of uncertainty in any field of science and technology. The BIPM undertakes scientific work at the highest level on a selected set of physical and chemical quantities. The BIPM is the hub of a worldwide network of national metrology institutes (NMIs) which continue to realize and disseminate the chain of traceability to the SI into national accredited laboratories and industry. Traceability is the property of the result of a measurement or the value of a standard whereby it can be related to stated references, usually national or international standards, through an unbroken chain of comparisons, all having stated uncertainties
In 1955 the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML) was established as an Intergovernmental Treaty Organization in order to promote the global harmonization of legal metrology procedures with the Bureau International de Métrologie Légale (BIML) as the Secretariat and Headquarters of the OIML. Since that time, the OIML has developed a worldwide technical structure whose primary aim is to harmonize the regulations and metrological controls applied by the national metrological services, or related organizations.