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Extend all the statements in this exercise to the volume of independent monologue utterances.





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a. Water has always been important for people, because …

b. The purification of water has always been a problem to solve, for …

c. A modern sewerage system should consist, as I suppose, ...

d. The main part of a sewerage system is ...

Discuss the text with your partner.

Make a close-to-the-text retelling of the contents.

4. Read the words to the text “Sewer” and their translation.

 

artificial (ad) - искусственный
brick-vaulted (adj) - находящийся под кирпичным сводом
catch basin - водосборный колодец
Cloaca Maxima - Клоака Максима (большой водосточный канал в Риме)
conceit (n) - причудливый образ
conduit (n) - акведук, водопроводная труба
detritus (n) - обломки
to disgorge (v) - впадать; сбрасывать (стоки)
eaves (n, pl.) - карниз
first flush - первый смыв
flooding (n) - затопление
impervious (ad) - непроницаемый
Indus Valley Civilization - цивилизация долины р. Инд
influx (n) - приток
inverted siphon - обратный сифон
main (n) - магистральный трубопровод
to overwhelm (v) - переполнить, залить
pipeline (n) - трубопровод
resistance fighters - отряды сопротивления
to restore (v) - возвращать
sewer grate - водоприёмная решётка
to soak (v) - впитывать (-ся)
to terminate (v) - заканчиваться
trap (n) - заграждающий фильтр
trough (n) - жёлоб для стока воды
unlined ditches - необлицованные канавы
upgrade (n) - модернизация
vacuum truck - автоцистерна с вакуумным насосом

 

Read and translate the text. Use a dictionary if necessary.

Sewer

A sewer is an artificial conduit (or pipe) or system of conduits used to carry and remove sewage (human liquid waste) and to provide drainage. In the 20th century developed world, sewers are usually pipelines that begin with connecting pipes from buildings to one or more levels of larger underground horizontal mains, which terminate at sewage treatment facilities. Vertical pipes, called manholes, connect the mains to the surface. Sewers are generally gravity powered, though pumps may be used if necessary.

Storm sewers (also storm drains) are large pipes that transport storm water runoff from streets to natural bodies of water or absorptive areas (also considered as part of the sewer), to avoid street flooding. When the two systems are operated separately, the sewer system that is not the set of storm drains is called a sanitary sewer.

 

Image of a sewer pipe

Storm sewer function. Catch basins are immediately below the vertical pipes connecting the surface to the storm sewers.

Storm sewer water may be treated or not. Treatment helps purify the storm water before being restored to a natural body of water. Storm water may become contaminated while running down the road or other impervious surface, or from lawn chemical runoff, before entering the sewer. It is a good idea to separate storm sewers from waste sewers because the huge influx of water during a rainstorm can overwhelm the treatment plant, resulting in untreated sewage being discharged into the environment.

Separation of undesired runoff can be done within the storm sewer system, but such devices are new to the market and can only be installed with new development or during major upgrades. They are referred to as oil-grit separators (OGS) or oil-sediment separators (OSS). They consist of a specialized manhole chamber, and use the water flow and/or gravity to separate oil and grit.

6. Find in the text synonyms to the given words:

1. capital (n);

2. living (adj);

3. to derive (v);

4. detonation (n);

5. crocodile (n);

6. pipe (n);

7. to finish (v);

8. plants (n);

9. to soak (v);

10. to pollute (v).

 

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