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Contents





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Sounds Review............................................................................. 6

Reading Matter......................................................................... 36

Poems......................................................................................... 49

To a False Friend by Th.Hood............................................. 49

No Enemies by Ch.Mackay................................................. 49

The Arrow and the Song by H.W.Longfellow...................... 49

Twilight by G.G.Byron........................................................ 50

Nothing Will Die by Alfred Tennyson............................... 50

The House That Jack Built.................................................. 51

Symphony in Yellow O.Wild.............................................. 52

Evening by P.B.Shelly………………………... ………….…52

The Owl and the Pussy Cat by E.Lear................................. 53

The Prisoner of Chillon by G.G.Byron............................... 54

My Native Land-Good Night by G.G.Byron....................... 54

Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening by R.Frost.......... 55

Bonnie Bell by R.Burns...................................................... 56

My Heart’s in the Highlands by R.Burns........................... 56

Sonnet 18 by W.Shakespeare............................................. 57

Sonnet 130 by W.Shakespeare........................................... 58

The Rainy Day by H.W.Longfellow................................... 58

The Raven by E.A.Poe....................................................... 59

Dialogues................................................................................... 60

Phobias............................................................................... 60

Tag questions...................................................................... 61

Changing Rates of Employment......................................... 61

A Victorian Family............................................................. 62

Panic in a Restaurant.......................................................... 63

Jim and Maggie Discuss Their Summer Holidays............... 63

Career Prospects................................................................. 65

Jim Has a Cold................................................................... 65

The Lost Tin Opener........................................................... 67

After the Exams.................................................................. 68

At School............................................................................ 69

A Picnic.............................................................................. 70

A Date for the Theatre........................................................ 71

After the Theatre............................................................... 72

Dialogues and stories for listening and reading....................... 74

Peter Parker........................................................................ 74

Holiday Plans..................................................................... 75

Loyal Fans (I...................................................................... 75

Linguistic Talent................................................................. 76

Texts......................................................................................... 77

The Comparison Game........................................................ 77

Back to School.................................................................... 77

English Games: Squash........................................................ 78

Bedtime Story...................................................................... 79

Problem Children................................................................. 79

Theory....................................................................................... 81

Classification of English Sounds......................................... 81

The Junction of Speech–Sounds.......................................... 83

Assimilation, Accommodation and Elision.......................... 91

Subsidiary Variants of English Phonemes............................ 99

Syllable Formation and Syllable Division in English.......... 106

Accentual Structure of English Words............................... 109

Strong and Weak Forms..................................................... 115

Intonation (I) (Components of Intonation.

Speech Melody)................................................................. 119

Intonation (II) (Functions)................................................ .120

Use of English Tones........................................................ 122

English Rhythm................................................................. 126

Emphatic Speech............................................................... 128

Step-by-Step Phonetic Analysis of a Sentence.......................... 133

Sentences for Phonetic Analysis...............................................135

Revision Exercises.................................................................... 137

Training Auding Tests............................................................... 141

Literature Recommended.......................................................... 161

SOUNDS REVIEW*

[i:]

 

1. Each man took his kit to the end of the quay.

2. I wish Eve could get them all to agree.

3. It’s easier to speak than to read.

4. How many people have you invited to the meeting?

5. We don’t expect to leave till this evening

6. I should like to see some tweed, please.

7. I feel it my duty to speak to his teachers.

8. After reading only for three minutes he felt into a deep sleep.

 

[ı]

 

 

1. If you want this one it’ll cost you triple.

2. He will get to the cinema with six minutes to spare.

3. It is impossible for him to get there in six minutes.

4. Jim seems ignorant of even the simplest facts of English history.

5. The building is situated near a big cliff.

6. Tim didn’t get there in winter, did he?

7. When you’ve finished it give me a ring.

8. It’s difficult to contradict him.

 

[ e ]

 

1. Edgar said he’d wait for her at the entrance.

2. When did you last tell your friend to send it?

3. Is that the gent who sent you the letter?

4. I think you’d better tell the rest of them.

5. There’s plenty of time to get it settled.

6. You mustn’t think Geoff read me everything.

7. Ed couldn’t mend it very well

8. He’s telling me he isn’t ready yet.

[ æ ]

 

1. Barratt said he’d wait for Ann on the platform.

2. You can easily catch the last bus for Barrow.

3. Is that the man who attacked you?

4. Baxter’s the last man to want to sack you.

5. I’m afraid Jack didn’t understand your plan.

6. The man put his bag on the rack.

7. Hasn’t Alen given you his racket?

8. Jack can do it that way.

[α: ]

Barney: Seen anything of Garth Rance recently?
Martin: Garth Lance?

Barney: No, Rance with an R.

Martin: Who’s Garth Rance, may I ask?

Barney: Don’t you remember? The man who gave you those driving lessons last March.

Martin: Oh, him. No, I’m afraid I haven’t. Why d’you ask? You don’t need more lessons, do you? I thought you passed your test.

Barney: So I did later in March. No, I don‘t need lessons. Margie does.

Martin: But didn’t you say your father was teaching her?

Barney: He was, but he literally couldn’t stand the pace. Margie has no conception of speed, if you’d seen her tearing round Regents Park, you’d have said she was competing in an international car race, rather than having elementary instruction in hanging our poor old car.

Martin: So Margie’s pretty confident, is she?

Barney: Confident! That’s putting it mildly. Anyway, Father stood up to this hurricane treatment of the car rather well, actually. But yesterday dear old Margie started taking the car to pieces, Father threw in the sponge.

Martin: So that’s why you were asking about Garth Rance. Let’s hope he’s fully insured.

[ ɒ ]

1. This is the very spot where Tom lost his watch.

2. Ron’s got a cough, so Don will do the shopping.

3. He flew from Ottawa to Moscow in three hops.

4. I’ve got to solve a very knotty problem.

5. He had a lot of bother getting to his office because of the thick fog.

6. I want a bottle of ink, some blotting-paper, and three box-files.

7. This cloth wants washing.

8. Tell Oliver to knock me up at six o’clock.

[ ɔ: ]

 

George Bernard Shaw’s gift of ready wit is well illustrated by story of how he turned the laugh against a member of the audience who was expressing his disapproval of one of his plays.

It was the first night of “Mrs. Warren’s Profession,’’ a play which had an enthusiastic reception from crowded house. When the curtain fell at the end of the first act there was tremendous applause, accompanied by insistent calls for the author to appear.

One man in the stalls, however, kept up a string of catcalls and whistling, thus expressing his disapproval. Shaw appeared before the curtain and waited in silence until the applause had died down.

Then, looking up at the hostile critic, he said: “I quite agree with you, Sir, but what can we two do against all these people?”

[ u: ]

Although it was June, and the moon was new the surrounding of the Lagoon were hardly romantic for Mr. and Mrs. Cooper. The weather was unusually cool, the place itself was quiet as a tomb, and almost as gloomy.

Certainly the Coopers were in no mood to go swimming in the pool, but their friends induced them to do so.

Later as the evening grew cooler and cooler, the Coopers and a few tourists had good reason to regret their foolishness, for Mrs. Cooper and several people of their group caught cold and had to send to the local physician, Dr. Woosley.

[ ʌ ]

Dunn: What do we do now?

Hutt: Look for some lunch, I should think. I’m hungry.

Dunn: Everywhere’ll full round here. We’d better go to my club.

Hutt: Your club’s a bit far, don’t you think? Hadn’t we better see if we can get in somewhere first?

Dunn: I don’t think it’s really worth it. We will if you like, but if a taxi comes along I think we’d better grab it and go to the club.

Hutt: Here’s one. No, he’s taken. There’s another though. Taxi.

 

[ɜ:]

1. Bert’s the last person to want to hurt you.

2. Is Earny going to leave by the eight thirty?

3. Which work do you want her to finish first?

4. I’ll return to the journals when I come on Thursday.

5. They’ll be serving lunch earlier on Thursday.

6. The curtain fell and the rehearsal was adjourned.

7. Earnest was disturbingly discursive throughout the journey.

8. The first and the third verses were most difficult to learn.

[ eı ]

1. I’ll take the papers when I come a little later.

2. Gray’s pronunciation is quite different from Bacon’s.

3. Is Jane going to leave by the eight twenty-eight?

4. Will you wait till I’ve had time to arrange?

5. Grace wants you to take the class today.

6. Payne said he’d wait for us at the station.

7. They’ll play the game later in the day.

8. The train was derailed by a violent gale.

 

[ au ]

1. Mr. Brown was not allowed to go to the house.

2. Howell ploughed the ground around his house.

3. The crowd let out a howl when the referee stopped the bout.

4.Mr. Pickwick felt very proud when he was pointed out as the founder of the club.

5. How long ago did she buy that blouse?

6. He fell down and got a bad cut over his eyebrow.

7. It took her about an hour to get to town.

8. Howell said that his brown cow had been found.

 

[ɔı ]

1. Small boys like noise- making toys.

2. Most coins are made of alloys.

3. I think Joyce is a bit hoity-toity.

4. Do you know the freezing and boiling points of water?

5. Any noise annoys an oyster but a noisy noise annoys an oyster more.

6. Joy cooked them in boiling oil.

7. You enjoyed eating the oysters, didn’t you?

8. Roy was annoyed with a boy because he’d spoiled his toy.

 

[ ıə]

1. He made it clear that his criticism would be severe.

2. I fear he’s far from being sincere.

3. It’s a real cashmere my dear.

4. The day was clear and the boys went pier.

5. If it’s not fear, then what else is it, Mr. Tier?

6. Don’t sneer at his inexperience, dear.

7. Towards night the severe weather turned into a real storm.

8. Steer clear of Mr. Geare.

[ εə ]

1. I can’t tell you about Clare. I wasn’t there.

2. Oh there you are Mary!

3. Why don’t you wear this pair of shoes?

4. His angry glare didn’t scare them.

5. Give Clare a fair share of pear jam.

6. Claire’s dairy is in want of repairs.

7. The unwary bear was caught in his lair.

8. This mare won a prize at the fair.

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