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Spheres(сфера) of Law

Law is a system of rules and guidelines(руководящие принципы, usually enforced(насильственно) through(через) a set of institutions(набор интститутов). It shapes(формы) politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator(посредник) of relations between people. The field of civil rights deals with the balance of governmental power and individual libertiesОбласти гражданского права имеет дело с баланса государственной власти и индивидуальных свобод. Contract law regulates everything from buying a bus ticket to trading(торгам) on derivatives(производные) markets(рынки). Property(собственность) law defines(определяет) rights and obligations related(обязательства связанные) to the transfer and title of personal and real property(передача и звание движимого и недвижимого имущества). Real estate law generally involves anything dealing(Недвижимость Юридический консалтинг обычно включает в себя что-нибудь дело) with real property (land). These laws are designed to determine(определяет) who owns land and the buildings on it, who has a right to possess(обладать) and use land or buildings, the sale and purchase of real property, landlord and tenant issues(ареднаторские вопросы), the development of real property(собственность), and compliance(соблюдает) with local, state, or national regulations affecting(затрагивающий) the use of real property.

If the harm(вред) is criminalised in a statute, criminal law offers means by which the state can prosecute(преследовать в судебном порядке) the perpetrator. So, it is a body of law that prohibits certain kinds of conduct(запрещает орпеделенные виды поведения) and imposes(налагает) sanctions for unlawful behaviour. Constitutional law provides a framework(рамки) for the creation of law, the protection of human rights and the election(выборы) of political representatives(представителей). Administrative law is used to review the decisions of government agencies, while international law governs affairs(дела) between sovereign(суверенные) states in activities ranging(начиная) from trade to environmental(екологические) regulation(права) or military action. Employment law addresses the legal rights of workers and their employers. Issues might include disputes regarding wages(в отношение заработной платы), hours, child labor(детский труд), workplace safety, discrimination based upon race, gender, age, and disabilities; and trade unions.

Legal systems elaborate(разрабатывает) rights and responsibilities in a variety(разнообразиее) of ways. A general distinction(различие) can be made between civil law jurisdictions, which codify their laws, and common law systems, where case law is not consolidated(консолидированый) into the code. In some countries, religion informs the law. Law provides a rich source of scholarly inquiry(запрос), into legal history, philosophy, economic analysis or sociology. Law also raises important and complex issues concerning equality, fairness and justice.(о равенстве, справедливости и правосудия.)

All legal systems deal with the same basic issues, but each country categorises and identifies(идентифицирует) its legal subjects in different ways. A common distinction is that between "public law" (a term related closely to the state, and including constitutional, administrative and criminal law), and "private law" (which covers contract, tort and property). In civil law systems, contract and tort fall under a general law of obligations(обязательств), while trusts law is dealt(дело) with under statutory regimes or international conventionsуставного режимов или международные конвенции. International, constitutional and administrative law, criminal law, contract, tort, property law and trusts are regarded(рассматривается) as the "traditional corе subjects(традиционное ядро субектов)", although there are many further(дальнейших) disciplines.

 

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