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Lake origin

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Baikal from space
The origin of Baikal still causes scientific disputes. Scientists traditionally define age of the lake in 25 — 35 million years. This fact also does Baikal by unique natural object as the majority of lakes, especially glacial origin, there live on the average 10 — 15 thousand years, and then are filled with an oozy precipitation and become boggy.
However there is also a version about youth of Baikal, put forward by the doctor of geologo-mineralogical sciences A.V. Tatarinov in 2009 which received indirect confirmations during the second stage of expedition of "Worlds" on Baikal. In particular, activity of mud volcanoes at the bottom of Baikal allows scientists to assume that the modern coastline of the lake only 8 thousand years, and a deep-water part — 150 thousand years [19].
Undoubtedly only that the lake is located in a riftovy hollow and on a structure is similar, for example, to the basin of the Dead Sea. One researchers explain formation of Baikal it an arrangement in a zone of a transformny break, others assume existence near Baikal mantiyny плюма, the third explain formation of a hollow by a passive rifting as a result of a collision of the Euroasian plate and Hindustan. Anyway, transformation of Baikal proceeds still — in lake vicinities constantly there are earthquakes. There are assumptions that the prosedaniye of a hollow is connected with formation of the vacuum centers owing to outpouring of basalts on a surface (Quaternary Period).




Sources of pollution

Now there are three threats to ecology of Lake Baikal. It is the Pulp and Paper Mill, oil pipeline, uranium factory. Baykalsk Pulp and Paper Mill (BPPM) was constructed in 1966, directly on the shore line, bleaching paper with chlorine and discharging waste into Baikal. After decades of protest, the plant was closed in November 2008 due to unprofitability. In March 2009 the plant owner announced the paper mill would never reopen. However, on 4 January 2010 the production was resumed. On 13 January 2010 Vladimir Putin introduced changes in the legislation legalising the operation of the mill, which brought about a wave of protests of ecologists and local residents. This was based on Putin's visual verification from a mini-submarine "I could see with my own eyes — and scientists can confirm — Baikal is in good condition and there is practically no pollution".

Russian oil pipelines state company Transneft was planning to build a trunk pipeline that would have come within 800 meters (2,600 ft) of the lake shore in a zone of substantial seismic activity. Environmental activists in Russia, Greenpeace, Baikal pipeline opposition and local citizens were strongly opposed to these plans, due to the possibility of an accidental oil spill that might cause significant damage to the environment. According to the Transneft's president, numerous meetings with ordinary citizens were held in towns along the route, especially in Irkutsk. However, it was not until Russian president Vladimir Putin ordered the company to consider an alternative route 40 kilometers (25 mi) to the north to avoid such ecological risks that Transneft agreed to alter its plans.Transneft has since decided to move the pipeline away from Lake Baikal, so that it will not pass through any federal or republic natural reserves. Work began on the pipeline, two days after President Putin agreed to changing the route away from Lake Baikal. In 2006, the Russian government announced plans to build the world's first International Uranium Enrichment Centre at an existing nuclear facility in Angarsk, 95 km (59 mi) from the lake's shores. However, critics argue it would be a disaster for the region and are urging the government to reconsider. After enrichment, only 10 percent of the uranium-derived radioactive material would be exported to international customers, leaving 90 percent in the Lake Baikal region for storage. Uranium tailings contain radioactive and toxic materials, which if improperly stored are potentially dangerous to humans and can contaminate rivers and lakes. Scientists are doing their best not to harm the ecology of Lake Baikal.



Wildlife and vegetation

Origin of the Angara River at Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal is rich in biodiversity. It hosts 1,085 species of plants and 1,550 species and varieties of animals. More than 80% of the animals are endemic. Epischura baikalensis is endemic to Lake Baikal and the dominating zooplankton species there, making up 80 to 90 percent of total biomass.[20] The Baikal Seal or nerpa (Pusa sibirica) is found throughout Lake Baikal.[21] It is one of only three entirely freshwater seal populations in the world, the other two being subspecies of Ringed Seal. Perhaps the most important local species is the omul (Coregonus autumnalis migratorius), a smallish endemic salmonid. It is caught, smoked and then sold widely in markets around the lake.
Of particular note are the two species of golomyanka or Baikal oil fish (Comephorus baicalensis and C. dybowskii). These long-finned, translucent fish normally live in depths of 200–500 m (650–1,600 ft) and are the primary prey of the Baikal seal, representing the largest fish biomass in the lake. The Baikal grayling (Thymallus arcticus baicalensis), a fast swimming salmonid, popular among anglers and the Baikal sturgeon (Acipenser baerri baicalensis), are both important endemic species with commercial value. The lake also hosts rich endemic fauna of invertebrates. Among them turbellarian worms, snails and amphipod crustaceans are particularly diverse.
The watershed of Lake Baikal has numerous flora species represented. The marsh thistle, Cirsium palustre, is found here at the eastern limit of its geographic range.







Lake Baikal is contaminated, irreversibly loses the beauty. It is necessary to stop contaminations while not late. It is needed to begin to use various facilities, to protect a lake, such unique lake will disappear otherwise, and together with him great number of wonderful, surprizing plants and animals. If to pull together and it is arranged, we will be able to save this lake and return his former unprecedented beauty.





The used literature


· Book «Happy English» M. Kaufman, K. Kaufman

· Internet:







Овс – титульный лист

Уд- Своё + So let’s my friends will tell you a little about the lake.

Кам- Ok, I'm willing to listen

Уд- What about you, for example

Кар – Ok, listen + своё

Кам - This is really interesting. There must be a lot of animals and plants.

Гур – Oh, yes of course + своё

Уд – It's interesting, but I hear there a lot of sources of pollution, isn’ it?

Овс – Unfortunately yes + своё

Уд - That's all my friends wanted to tell you

Кам - It was great, I really enjoyed it. So that's what I learned + свой вывод

Уд – используемая литература

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