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Functions of the Article





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Whether the Article has meanings or functions?

Barhudarov => The M of the A is highly abstract, it's more proper to speak about functions. Different spheres of Grammar - different functions

• Morphologically - to serve as the formal indicator of a Noun. Ильиш: to indicate substantivity. The presence of the A signals that what follows is a noun or what has acquired some nominal characteristics. (e/g black - a black ( 1 человек), the black (раса)

• From the syntactic point of view - a) to separate the noun phrase from other members of the sentence. What stands btw the A and the noun is one and the same member of the sentence( e/g I bought a think English book)

b) to connect different Sentences

e/g We saw a man. The man was approaching us.

• Semantic role consists in relating a given utterance to a given speech situation. (=actualization). Ws denote many things, they have different meanings but when speaking, people choose one aspect of the thing.

* Barmina, Verkhovskaya "The Eng Article": A has category of definiiteness / indefmiteness A = the determiner of the N or a noun-phrase. Determiners=formal means of expressing this category. This category presents the object as known/unknown, general/individual, identifiable/ non-identifiable. In Eng article is the main means of expressing this category, besides

possessive, demonstrative, indefinite pronouns, Ws denoting place,. numerals and some others.

5. The art (A), № of A, def & indef A.

The noun is usually preceded by the A.

Problems:

~the number of As; ~the status of the A; ~meanings/functions

The status of the A in modern Eng. 2 aspect of the question:

1) Is the A a morpheme or is it a separate word?

If we compare Eng to German→in German the A is a word, it has different forms, each form will find reflection of the categories of gender, number and case. Every form of the A in German contains the root morpheme and the inflexion morpheme.

Some grammarians mentioned morphemic character of the Eng A. They term the Eng A a structural element of the noun. They say that the indefinite A with the noun “cat” signals singularity (as the morpheme “s”[cats] signals pluraliry). The A can change its position in reference to the noun (a cat, a blafck cat, a lovely black cat). A-s can be substituted by other words (the cat→this cat, my cat). Such features are not characteristic of morphemes → most Eng grammarians treat the A as a separate word.

2) If the A is a separate word, is it a separate p.of sp. or is it not such? If not, the A is to be described among other p-s of sp.

Class-cal Eng grammars treat the A is an Adj; or more often as a pronoun. The idea that the A is sort of a pronoun originates from the fact that in Old Eng, the As were derived from pronouns. This is true only of “the” (se→the).

Круизинга includes “a” among the indefinite pronouns and “the” – among the demonstrative pronouns.

Jesperson and Sweet also treat As as pronouns.

Kerma pronominal attribute.

Representatives of structural grammar (Freeze) treated the A among the structural words called the determiners.

Russian linguists treated the A as a functional p.of sp. because different A-s have specific meanings and functions.

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