In 1983, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) established a committee whose goal was to produse “an unambiguous and machine-independent definition of the language C”, while still keeping its spirit. The result is the ANSI standart for C.
The standard formalizes constructions, particularly structure assignments and enumerations. It specifies a standard library, with an extensive set of functions for performing input and output, memory management, string manipulation, and similar tasks.
C is a general-purpose programming language. It has been closely associated with the UNIX OS where it was developed, since both the system and most of the programs that run on it are written in C.
C provides a variety of data types. The fundamental types are characters, and integers and floating point numbers of several sized. C also provides the fundamental control-flow constructions required for well-structured programs: statement grouping, decision making, selecting one of a set of possible values, looping with the termination test at the top or at the bottom, and early loop exit.
28. What does the term "Java" refer to?
The term ‘Java’ refers to three things:
1. an island in Indonesia
2. a cup of coffee, in American slang
3. a language for Internet applications
29. What is hacking?
Computer hacking is the practice of modifying computer hardware and software to accomplish a goal outside of the creator’s original purpose. People who engage in computer hacking activities are often called hackers. Since the word “hack” has long been used to describe someone who is incompetent at his/her profession, some hackers claim this term is offensive and fails to give appropriate recognition to their skills.
30. Why do hackers do their "job"?
Computer hacking is most common among teenagers and young adults, although there are many older hackers as well. Many hackers are true technology buffs who enjoy learning more about how computers work and consider computer hacking an “art” form. They often enjoy programming and have expert-level skills in one particular program. For these individuals, computer hacking is a real life application of their problem-solving skills. It’s a chance to demonstrate their abilities, not an opportunity to harm others.
31. Why is security so important on the Internet?
32. What do you need to connect to the Internet?
You need an Internet service provider (ISP) and some hardware to connect to the Internet:
1. ISP. An ISP provides access to the Internet. You sign up for an account with an ISP just as you do for telephone service or utilities.
2. Hardware. For a broadband connection such as Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) or cable, you need a DSL or cable modem. This is usually included as part of the start-up hardware from your ISP when you sign up for a broadband account. For a dial-up connection, you need a dial-up modem. Many computers come with this type of modem already installed.
33. What is an Internet service provider?
An Internet service provider (ISP) is a company that provides access to the Internet. Access ISPs connect customers to the Internet using copper, wireless or fiber connections.
34. What is HTML?
HTML, which stands for HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. HTML is the basic building-blocks of webpages.
HTML is written in the form of HTML elements consisting of tags, enclosed in angle brackets (like <html>), within the web page content. HTML tags normally come in pairs like <h1> and </h1>. The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag (they are also called opening tags and closing tags). In between these tags web designers can add text, tables, images, etc.
The purpose of a web browser is to read HTML documents and compose them into visual or audible web pages. The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses the tags to interpret the content of the page.
35. What are advantages and disadvantages of using the Internet?
1. Communications: now we can communicate in a fraction of second with a person who is sitting in the other part of the world.
2. Information: the Internet is a virtual treasure trove of information. Any kind of information on any topic under the sun is available on the Internet.