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I. Match the words with their meaning by placing the proper letter on each blank.

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- inspiration a) to preoccupy the mind with an idea or emotion

- to obsess b) to cause to believe without doubt

- to convince c) an idea or impulse which loads to creative action.

- circumstance d) a belief in the value or truth.

- faith e) a condition.

Cross out the word which does not correspond to other words in the line.

1. Engine, wingspan, propeller, witness, plane.

2. Flight, death, consistently, pressure, air.

3. Maintain, glide, fly, swim, return.

3. Which of the verbs corresponds to the same scheme?

1. to push up and down a.

2. to roll side to side b.

3. to yaw left and right c.

4. move straight d.

4. Choose the best answer to the following questions.

1. What did the Wrights need to develop to make a self-powered airplane?

a. its stability b. its weight c. its engine

2. What was the first name of Wrights airplane?

a. Kill David Hill b. Kitty Hawk c. Flyer

3. Which of the three figures correspond to the longest flight of the plane?

a. 274 b. 260 c. 123

4. How many witnesses were there to the first Wrights’ flight?

a. three b. five c. two

5. What was the selection of the test side at Kill David Hill based on

a. technical calculations

b. technical conditions

c. favourable weather conditions

5. What do you think:

1. Who inspired Orville and Wilbur Wright to invent an airplane?

2. What technical problems were solved by the brothers?

3. When was the first plane ready to be tested?

4. What was the name of the plane?

5. Why were the brothers sure that the plane would be able of lifting and maintaining itself in the air?

V. Discuss with your groupmates:

1. What new information about the first airplane have you learnt from the text?

2. Read the statement by Orville Wright in the text and say if you agree or disagree with him?


I. First thoughts

How do you think a radio operates? Do you know anyone who likes to make different electrical goods such as radios, computers, etc.?

II. Study these words. Make sure you know them.

transmitter, electromagnetic, broadcast, equipment, frequency, message.

III. Read the text and do the tasks following it:

Do you have a favorite radio station? What do you like about it? Have you ever wondered how your radio is able to produce the sounds and the music that you like to hear?

Radio programs are sent by a machine called a transmitter to your radio which is called a receiver. The programs don't travel through wires like telephone messages do. They are sent through the air over long distances by electromagnetic waves. These waves are called radio waves and were discovered by a German scientist named Heinrich Hertz. He discovered that these waves could carry sound signals. He also discovered that radio waves have different lengths.

Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian, invented a microphone that changed sound waves into electronic signals, and then he developed a receiver that turned them back into sound again. He also found a way to keep waves of the same length together and keep those of different wave lengths separate. On his equipment, a radio wave looked like a letter "s" lying on its side. Short waves curved up and down more times each second than longer ones, so he divided all the waves by how many times they curved each second or by how frequently they curved. He called each group a frequency. The numbers on your radio dial are different frequencies. Different stations can broadcast their programs at the same time using different frequencies.

Later, scientists found that by using only the top half of a radio wave they could reduce static and other noise that interfered with clear sound. This kind of radio transmission is called FM broadcasting because the frequency has been modulated or changed.

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