Department of Agricultural and post-harvesting Machines
) on subject) on subjecton subject «Adjustment and linkage of Agricultural machines»
Considered and approved
at the meeting of Methodological
Council of S.Seifullin
Kazakh Agro-Technical University
Chairman of Methodological
Council of S.Seifullin
Kazakh Agro-Technical University Protocol №___
Authors: Yeskhozhin К. – Candidat of Techical Sciense, Associate Professor of the Department of Agricultural and post-harvesting Machines.
Educational-methodical __________ is designed for training on discipline "Fundamentals of tractors" for students on specialty 5B080600 - "Agricultural techniques and technology"
Educational-methodical instructions are made according to the working curriculum of specialty.
Methodical instructions are intended for students of specialties 5В080600 – « Agricultural techniques and technology» and includes laboratory occupation tasks and independent work, educational literature lists and control questions for self-examination.
Reviewers: Doctor of Technical Science, Professor S.O. Nukeshev;
Reviewed and recommended at a meeting of the Department of Agricultural and post-harvesting Machines.
Protocol № ___, of "__" ___________ 2012.
Reviewed and recommended at a meeting of the methodical commission of Technical Faculty.
Protocol № ___, of "__" ___________ 2012.
Purpose of the work:
1. To study the construction of plough and its important functions.
2. To study the construction of plough components and its functions.
3. To study the body types of ploughs.
4. Controls and adjustments
5. Ploughing systems
Planters are used for vegetative reproduction of crops. Either parts of plants or whole small plants are put into the soil. Potato tubers can be regarded as parts of plants. On the other hand, with paddy rice, cabbage, and trees it is customary to put into the soil whole small plants, which grew up under a transparent cover in garden beds or in greenhouses. The term transplanting seems appropriate for this method of establishing a crop.
Potato planting machinery
Potatoes grown in differ in sizes. On the average, the continental European potato weighs only about 35% of the American potato. This influences the planting methods despite the fact that, generally, for planting smaller fractions are used than for human or industrial consumption. Whereas in continental Europe whole small tubers are planted, in the United States often the seed potatoes are cut in order to use the large tubers more effectively. The mass of tubers needed per ha still is high; it varies on both sides of the Atlantic between 1200 kg and 2000 kg. Therefore, the delivery and the refilling of seed tubers deserves attention.
A deep seedbed suitable for potatoes can be prepared on most soils with a plough and a selection of cultivation machinery. However, stony soils can cause problems, including a high rate of wear and tear on harvesting machinery and a poor quality sample with damaged tubers when the crop is lifted. Growing potatoes on the bed system after mechanically removing stones and clods will overcome these problems and prevent the formation of still more clods.
Growing potatoes on the bed system requires a deep seedbed, usually 1.8 or 2.0 m wide, prepared with a bed former and a de-stoning machine. All subsequent operations are carried out with the tractor wheels set wide enough to straddle the bed, thus avoiding soil compaction and the formation of more clods in the bed.
Figure 18.12 Preparing a potato seedbed with a rotary cultivator and a bed former. Subsoiling tines on the toolbar, in front of the ridging bodies, loosen the soil compacted by the tractor wheels.
Bed FormersA bed former with two, three or four large ridging bodies on a toolbar is used to make very wide ridges or beds in previously cultivated soil. Depending on the spacing of the potato rows, the beds are usually between 1.5 and 2 m (60 and 80 in) wide. The bed width is altered by repositioning the ridging bodies on the toolbar. Subsoiler tines can be attached to the toolbar in front of the ridging bodies. Markers are used to ensure an accurate spacing between the beds. The space between each bed may be the same as the distance between the ridges, or wider if there are a lot of big stones in the soil.
The field should be levelled and cultivated to the full seedbed depth before the land is ridged. Bed preparation can be speeded up by using a bed former in tandem with a rotary cultivator or power harrow.
De-stoning Machines.De-stoners lift previously formed beds, sift out stones and clods and return the soil to the ground in shaped beds ready for the potato planter. The stones are cross-elevated and deposited in a furrow at one side of the machine. Depending on the model, a de-stoner will make a stone-free bed between 1.5 and 2.0 m wide.
Floating diabolo rolls control share depth and keep the machine on the ridges. It is usual for the rear wheels to be steered hydraulically. Some de-stoning machines have two or even three web-type elevators.
The ridges are lifted by wide shares and passed over a web conveyor to rows of power-driven star agitators which shake much of the soil through the agitators to the ground. De-stoners may have one or two web conveyors and a short or long run of star agitators. Machines for heavy or sticky land have more rows of star agitators than those for light soils. The soil and stones fall from the agitators on to a rear web conveyor with a clod-crushing web above it to break up any stubborn clods picked up with the ridge.
When the stones and remaining clods reach the back of the machine they drop on to a cross-conveyor which carries them sideways into the furrow between two beds. The stones are pushed into the ground by the tractor wheels when the crop is planted and they help to drain away water which collects between the beds. Web conveyors with a different spacing (pitch) between the bars can be used on a de-stoner. A web with a 40 mm pitch will let fewer stones through with the soil than a wider, 60 mm pitch web. The angle of the first or second web conveyor can be adjusted with hydraulic rams. A steeper angle will improve separation of stones from the soil in difficult conditions.
Figure 18.4 A de-stoner at work.
Figure 18.5 A de-stoner for potato seedbeds.
Figure 18.13 Two-row automatic cup feed potato planter with a fertiliser placement attachment in front of the planting mechanism.