· My friend doesn’t like either borrowing or lending money. (gerund)
· It wasn’t wise of Martha to agree to that job. (infinitive)
· Nobody saw the boy leaving the house. (participle I)
· Things seen are mightier than things heard. (participle II)
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB
1. Non-finite forms of the verb usually denote a secondary action or a process related to the one expressed by a finite verb.
· Bobby started skating on the frozen lake. (‘started’ – primary action; ‘skating’ – secondary action)
· Fiona decided to leave on Monday. (‘decided’ – primary action; ‘to leave’ – secondary action)
2. The verbals have a double nature: nominaland verbal
participle I and II = verb + adjective
· I saw a smiling girl in the window.
· The book given to me by Peter was not very interesting.
gerund / infinitive = verb + noun
· Learning foreign languages is hard work.
· To learn a foreign language well, one must work hard.
3. The verbals do not express person, number or mood.
4. The verbals have the following distinctions /categories:
a) aspect (Indefinite (Common/ Simple) or Continuous),
b) correlation (Non-Perfect or Perfect)
c) voice (Active or Passive)
5. The verbals seldom function as predicates but are often used as part of predicates, e.g.
· You might have encouraged the kid before the exam. (compound verbal modal predicate with infinitive)
· Jim was painting the bedroom when his wife came home from work. (simple verbal predicate with participle I)
· After that heated discussion the girls looked angry and frustrated. (compound nominal predicate with participle II)
· Kate kept on laughing and splashing water on Jake. (compound verbal aspect predicate with gerund)
SUMMARY OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VERBALS
Forms and examples
· Indefinite (Simple / Common), e.g. Helen may come
tomorrow. John appears to be pleased.
· Continuous, e.g. Peter must be doing his yoga exercises at the
moment. Lily seems to be playing quite happily.
· Non-Perfect, e.g. All the books must be returned to the library
by December 25. Tom seems to enjoy his new job.
· Perfect, e.g. Jack must have been learning English for a long
time, as he knows it so well. Adele is said to have finished her
· Active, e.g. Marge has to cook all the meals herself. Henry wants to take up a new hobby.
· Passive, e.g. All the meals in the family have to be cooked by their mother. Hob seems to be paid too much attention to.