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FORMS OF INFINITIVE



CORRELATION ASPECT ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
NON-PERFECT (Simple) INDEFINITE/ COMMON (expresses an action simultaneous with the one expressed by the finite verb) · Mary must do homework every day. · Dave likes to give advice to everyone. · Homework must be done every day. · Dave likes to be given advice. = Дейву нравится, когда ему дают советы. / Дейву подобається, коли йому дають поради.
CONTINUOUS (expresses an action simultaneous with the one expressed by the finite verb but in progress) · Mary must be doing her homework now. = Мэри, должно быть, сейчас делает свое домашнее задание. / Мэри, мабуть, зараз робить своє домашнє завдання. · At that moment they happened to be standing right outside her house. = Случилось так, что в тот момент они как раз стояли перед ее домом. / Трапилося так, що в той момент вони саме стояли перед її будинком.     ------------------

 

PERFECT INDEFINITE/ COMMON (expresses an action prior to the one denoted by the finite verb) · Mary must have done her homework. = Мэри, должно быть, уже сделала свое домашнее задание. / Мэри, мабуть, уже зробила своє домашнє завдання. · Dave is sure to have given one of his famous pieces of advice. = Дейв наверняка дал один из своих знаменитых советов. / Дейв напевно дав одну зі своїх відомих порад. · Mary’s homework must have already been done. = Домашняя работа Мэри, должно быть, уже сделана. / Домашня робота Мэри, мабуть, уже зроблена. · The letter seems to have been sent. = Кажется, письмо уже послано. / Здається, лист вже надісланий.
CONTINUOUS (expresses an action which lasted a certain time before the action of the finite verb) · Mary must have been doing her homework for 3 hours already. = Мэри, должно быть, уже делает свое домашнее задание 3 часа. / Мэри, мабуть, вже робить своє домашнє завдання 3 години. · All their honeymoon they seemed to have been living on nothing but love. = Весь свой медовый месяц, они, кажется, жили только любовью. / Весь свій медовий місяць, вони, здається, жили лише коханням.   -------------------

 

 

2. It is often difficult to translate English sentences with the infinitive into Russian or Ukrainian as there are only two forms of the Infinitive in Slavic languages and 6 forms in English. Compare:

 

Russian Ukrainian English
1. делать 2. сделать 1. робити 2. зробити 1. to do 2. to be done 3. to be doing 4. to have done 5. to have been done 6. to have been doing

TASK 2. Find infinitives in the sentences below and define their forms. The first one is done for you. Translate the sentences into your mother tongue.

1. You must be careful with Dinny, otherwise you can find yourself in a trap. – NPA

2. "Come along, Imogen," said Winifred, "we must be getting back."

3. You must have noticed her there; she was the only one wearing a bright red dress.

4. She can’t have been that naïve! The whole thing must have been going on under her eyes!

5. She's like a beautiful exotic flower that must be sheltered from bitter winds.

6. This meeting, Edwina realized, must have been planned several hours ago.

7. ‘I want to know how long we are expected to wait’. – ‘Don’t make a fuss. We must have been waiting for only a couple of minutes.’

8. Derek seemed to be weighing something in his mind.

9. You know how I hate to interfere in other people's business.

10. I considered myself to be standing much higher than all my fellow-workers.

11. Was the object attached to anything? No wires or anything? I mean, someone couldn't have been having a joke or something?

12. He seemed to have taken his defeat quietly.

13. I rang the bell and the man answered with remarkable promptness; he seemed to have been waiting for it to ring.

14. Martin had in the meantime made himself as comfortable as circumstances would permit.

15. I’d rather be told the truth than be lied to.

16. Jennifer was known to have had a quick temper.

 

TASK 3. Decide if the given forms of the infinitive are right or wrong. Correct the wrong ones. The first one is done for you.

No Sentence Form of the infinitive right wrong
The terrorist holding the hostages is thought to be heavily armed. non-perfect active   √ – NPP
The rate of inflation is expected to rise. non-perfect active    

 




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