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TASK 28. In the quotations below, find adverbial modifiers expressed by infinitives and define them. Explain how you understand them. Translate them into your mother tongue.

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1. To be the gainer you are to lose yourself; to be happy you are to forget yourself.

2. Forty is a ridiculous age to be. You are too young to be called old and too old to be called young.

3. The evils we bring on ourselves are hardest to bear. (Proverb)

4. Modern art is when you buy a picture to cover the hole in the wall – and decide that the hole looks better.

5. There is a time in the life of every problem when it is big enough to see, yet too small to solve.

6. Life is too important to be taken seriously. (O.Wilde)

7. He that is slow to anger is better that mighty. (Proverb)

8. Try not to become a man of success but rather become a man of value. (Albert Einstein)

9. It is not enough to have a good mind; the main thing is to use it well.

TASK 29. Paraphrase the sentences using an infinitive or an infinitive phrase as adverbial modifier of purpose. Follow the example.

Example: Elizabeth needed somehow to make a living, so she started giving private music lessons. - To make a living Elizabeth started giving private lessons.

1. Monica wanted to cook mushroom soup, so she bought some mushrooms, carrots and onions at the greengrocer's.

2. Mrs. Boid’s memory is getting worse, so she has to write things down and stick them to the fridge with magnets, or she may forget something important.

3. Henry’s desire was to justify himself, so he persuaded Laura to give evidence.

4. If you do not want to lag behind the group, you'll have to take all the exams before the academic year is over.

5. Mr. Davis had to follow his financial advisers’ instructions as it could prevent his going bankrupt.

6. You will make your idea clear if you illustrate each point with good examples.

7. Mr. Bronson decided that it was better to accept the rival company’s proposal if he wanted to increase his income.

8. Try to show your good manners and don't be rude, otherwise you will not impress your potential foster family favourably.

9. Stephanie wanted to stay in good shape, so she joined a sports club and took up calisthenics.

10. Oh, I didn’t realize it was that late! We should hurry up, or we'll miss the 5.00 train.

11. Your granny is definitely getting worse. You have to take her to hospital; she needs to be examined by a specialist.

12. Lesley saved as much money as he could because he wanted to set up his own business.

13. If you want to imitate Cockney speech, you should have an outstanding ability to mimic other people.

14. The spectators wanted to pay tribute to the famous pianist’s outstanding performance, so they rose to their feet and gave him a standing ovation.

15. In the northern areas of this country, people need hot houses so that they could grow fresh vegetables.

16. She smiled at me as if she wanted to show that I was a welcome guest.

17. Angela stopped writing in order that she could have some tea.

18. I have to talk to you promptly because I want to warn you of the danger.


TASK 30. Paraphrase the sentences using an infinitive or an infinitive phrase as adverbial modifier of result/consequence. Follow the examples.

Examples: He is clever. He can solve any problem. – He is clever enough to solve any problem.

Jerry is a very proud boy; he won’t accept our help. – Jerry is too proud to accept our help.

1. The boys were silly. They played with matches in the dry forest.

2. Lucy is very rude. She can offend anybody who somehow displeases her.

3. Brenda’s friends are warm-hearted. They will help her willingly.

4. This flat is really very expensive. We can't afford it.

5. Despite her young age, Julia is very clever. She knows her own mind.

6. The lecture was so dull. I didn't take any notes.

7. My granddad is really unwell. He can't even move.

8. The old lady couldn’t walk very fast. She was not able to catch her bus.

9. I’m sure Mr. Brandwell will never agree to do the terms of this contract. He is a very experienced negotiator.

10. Kate is very attractive. It's easy to fall in love with her.

11. Philip is a reliable man. You can trust him.

12. Don't keep your children indoors in this wonderful weather. Let them go for a walk.

13. The members of the jury are not gullible. They will never find Mr. Boil innocent.

14. The rain was really very heavy. We had to cancel the picnic.

15. The queue was very long. We decided not to go to the cinema that evening.

16. Sheila was unwell that day and refused to meet us.

17. He is really light-minded; he may ruin his reputation with the actions like this.

18. The road was slippery; we couldn’t feel safe.


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