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Malware and computer crime

Computer crime encompasses a broad range of illegal activities. It may be divided into two categories: 1) crimes that target computer networks or devices directly (malware, denial-of-service (DoS) attacks and computer viruses) 2) crimes facilitated by computer networks or devices (cyber stalking, fraud and identity theft, phishing scams).

Malicious software (malware) is software designed to infiltrate a computer system without the owner's informed consent. Malware includes computer viruses, worms, Trojan [’trəʋdʒən] horses, most rootkits, spyware, dishonest adware, and other malicious and unwanted software.

Many early infectious programs were written as experiments or pranks. Hostile intent can be found in programs designed to cause harm or data loss. Many DOS viruses were designed to destroy files on a hard disk, or to corrupt the file system.

However, since the rise of widespread broadband Internet access, malicious software has come to be designed for a profit motive. Infected "zombie computers" are used to send email spam, to host contraband data such as child pornography, or to engage in distributed denial-of-service attacks.

The best-known types of malware, viruses and worms, are known for the manner in which they spread. A virus requires user intervention to spread, whereas a worm spreads automatically. It can reproduce itself and spreads from one computer to the next over a network. Before Internet access became widespread, viruses spread on personal computers by infecting programs or the executable boot sectors of floppy disks. With the rise of the MS Windows platform in the 1990s it became possible to write infectious code in the macro language of Microsoft Word and similar programs.

For a malicious program to accomplish its goals, it must be able to do so without being shut down, or deleted by the user or administrator of the computer on which it is running. When a malicious program is disguised as something innocuous or desirable, users may install it. This is the technique of the Trojan horse or trojan. One of the most common ways that spyware is distributed is as a Trojan horse, bundled with a piece of desirable software that the user downloads from the Internet. When the user installs the software, the spyware is installed alongside. Spyware authors who attempt to act in a legal fashion may include an end-user license agreement that states the behavior of the spyware in loose terms, which the users are unlikely to read or understand.

Once a malicious program is installed on a system, it is essential that it stay concealed, to avoid detection and disinfection. Techniques known as rootkits allow this concealment, by modifying the host operating system so that the malware is hidden from the user. Rootkits can prevent a malicious process from being visible in the system's list of processes. Some malicious programs contain routines to defend against removal, not merely to hide themselves, but to repel attempts to remove them.

A computer can be a source of evidence. Even though the computer is not directly used for criminal purposes, it is an excellent device for record keeping, particularly given the power to encrypt the data. This evidence can be obtained and decrypted and be of great value to criminal investigators.

As malware attacks become more frequent, attention has begun to shift from viruses and spyware protection, to malware protection, and programs have been developed to specifically combat them. They can provide real time protection against the installation of malware software on a computer by scanning all incoming network data for malware and blocks any threats. They also scan the contents of the windows registry, operating system files, and installed programs on a computer, allowing the user to choose which files to delete or keep.

 

Words and word combinations:

1) to encompass – охватывать/ охоплювати 2) malicious software (malware) – вредоносное ПО/ шкідливе ПЗ 3) denial of access – отказ в доступе/ відмова у доступі 4) cyber stalking –кибер-преследование/кібер-переслідування (использование интернета для преследования или травли отдельных лиц или организаций; может включать в себя ложные обвинения, контроль за деятельностью, угрозы, кражи личных данных, повреждение данных или оборудования) 5) fraud and identity theft – подделка и кража личных данных/ підробка і крадіжка особистих даних 6) phishing scam – интернет-мошенничество/інтернет-шахрайство 7) worm– червь/ черв'як 8) spyware– программа-шпион/програма-шпигун 9) adware– программа-реклама 10) to corrupt – портить, повреждать/псувати, пошкоджувати 11) to host– размещать/розміщувати 12) to engage in– заниматься, принимать участие/займатися, приймати участь 13) to spread – распространять(ся)/поширювати(ся) 14) a source of evidence – источник доказательств/джерело доказів 15) to hide (hid, hidden) – скрывать(ся)/ приховувати (ся) 16) to combat – бороться/ боротися

 

I Find the equivalents in the text:

1) широкий диапазон незаконной деятельности/ широкий діапазон незаконної діяльності 2) повреждать файлы на винчестере/пошкоджувати файли на вінчестері 3) рассылать спам по электронной почте/розсилати спам по електронній пошті 4) размещать запрещенные данные/розміщувати заборонені дані 5) участие пользователя для распространения/участь користувача для розповсюдження 6) он может воспроизводить себя/ він може відтворювати себе 7) маскируется под нужную программу/маскується під потрібну програму 8) защищает от удаления/захищає від видалення 9) evidence can be obtained and decrypted - свидетельства могут быть получены и расшифрованы /свідоцтва можуть бути отримані і розшифровані 10) позволяя пользователю выбирать файлы для удаления/ дозволяючи користувачеві вибирати файли для видалення.

II Make questions to the underlined words:

1) It is divided into two categories. 2) In XXI century Internet access became widespread. 3) The spyware will be installed alongside with the desirable program. 4) They provide real time protection against the installation of malware. 5) Antivirus programs have been developed to combat malicious software.

III Fill the gaps:

Computer crime ____ broad range of illegal activities. Criminals target computer networks or devices directly using malware and ____. They can also use ____ or devices for cyber stalking, fraud and identity theft, phishing scam. Malware includes computer viruses,worms, Trojan horses, ____ , spyware and adware. These programs are written to destroy files on a hard disk, to ____ the file system, to send email spam, to host contraband data or to engage in DoS attacks. Malware is divided into ____ categories. ____ requires user intervention to spread. ____ spreads automatically from one computer to the next over a network. ____ is disguised as desirable program and users may install it. Rootkits can ____ the installed malware and defend against removal. Antivirus software has been developed to ____ malicious programs.

===============================================================

1) combat 2) rootkit 3) encompasses 4) a computer virus 5) a Trojan horse 6) corrupt 7) DoS attacks 8) computer network 9) hide 10) a worm 11) several.

IV Give the full name of the shortenings and explain the meaning:

LED; LCD

 




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