Computer use continues to grow and develop in all spheres of our life. Its applicationshave had a great impacton the business world. Computers have helped society by increasing productivity and simplifyingmany services, such as checking accounts, credit cards, and telephone service.
A computer is an electronic machine that can store,retrieve,and process datawith great speed and accuracy.
A PC is a personal computer which is the standard computer for most individual users. There are various sizes of personal computer, including adesktop,and portable types such as a laptop,a notebook or a palmtop.
Hardwareis the actual machinery of a computer, the circuits, wires, and drives.
Softwarecontains the instructions that tell a computer what to do at every step along the way. Software is entered into a computer in the form of a program. Some programs (called viruses)are deliberately designed to cause problems in a computer system. They are hidden in programs, and are not obvious to users. A virusis an error that is introduced into a program with the intention of causing a malfunction.A computer may crash and stop working altogether. This may be caused by a bug (an error in the software).
A hackeris a person who gains unauthorized access to computer systems.
1 Match the words used to describe computer equipment with the correct definition from the list below
scanner modem printer monitor hard disk mouse keyboard disk drive
1. the part of a computer that holds the display screen;
2. the set of keys that you use to enter information into the computer;
3. a small device that controls the movements of the cursor (the small vertical line) on the screen;
4. a machine connected to the computer which you use to transfer information onto paper;
5. a device or program that enables data to be transmitted over the telephone line;
6. a device that reads data from paper and enters it into the computer;
7. part of a computer on which data is stored long term;
8. a machine that reads data from and stores data on a disk, a hard disk or a floppy disk.
2 Write the appropriate word or phrase in the following spaces. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
a hacker palmtops a malfunction software(2) hardware desktops
user data simplify applications a bug
1 Computers have …………... in business. 2 Let's ………….. the job by dividing it into smaller tasks. 3 Computers process ……….... to create information. 4 The ……….... of that computer simply turns it on and starts typing. 5 We have three ……….... in our office. 6 That store sells computer ……….... , such as PCs, printers, and modems. 7 I use communications ……….... to exchange knowledge with other computer users. 8 The computer virus caused ……….... 9 ……….... allow our employees to keep in touch with the office while on business trips. 10 ……….... is a computer fanatic, often someone who illegally enters computer systems. 11 A computer crash may be caused by ……….... . 12 Have you seen the ……….... application that allows you to translate your documents into English?
1 What is a computer? 2 What impact do computers have on the business world? 3 What is a PC? 4 What kinds of personal computers do you know? 5 What is hardware? 6 What does software contain? 7 What causes problems in a computer system? 8 What is a virus? 9 What do we call a person who gains unauthorized access to computer systems? 10 What kind of PC would you prefer to have, a desktop or a laptop? Why? 11 Can you imagine your life without a computer? Why / Why not?
Grammar: Present Perfect – Теперішній перфектний час (1)
worked / begun…
He/she/it hasn’t worked / begun…
worked / begun…?
Has he/she/it worked / begun…?
• Present Prefect утворюється з допоміжного дієслова haveу Present Simple та дієприкметника минулого часу (Past Participle) основного дієслова.
У питально-заперечній формі допоміжне дієслово ставиться перед підметом, а частка not - після підмета:
Why have you not told me about him? - Чому ти не розповів мені про нього?
У питально-заперечних реченнях здебільшого вживаються скорочені форми haven't і hasn't,які ставляться перед підметом:
Hasn'the been to Kyiv? - Невже він не був у Києві?
Whyhaven'tyou put on your coat? - Чому ти не одягнув пальто?
• Present Perfect вживається для вираження дії, яка відбулась до моменту мовлення, і той, хто говорить, має на увазі результат цієї минулої дії, її важливість на момент мовлення:
Іhave locked the door. - Я замкнув двері.
Have youturnedoff the gas? - Ви вимкнули газ?
• Час дії, вираженої дієсловом у Present Perfect, здебільшого не зазначається, тому що у центрі уваги результат дії, а не час її перебігу:
Youhaven’t toldme the whole story. - Ви не розповіли мені всього.
What havethey done?- Що вони зробили?
1 Translate the sentences into Ukrainian
1 Mark has switched off the light. 2 My relatives have received the parcel from their friends. 3 Our grandpa has travelled a lot in his life. 4 Jeremy has passed all his exams. 5 Her little girl has broken the cup. 6 The director has signed the order. 7 We have seen "Swan Lake" at the Bolshoi Theatre. 8 They have paid for the goods in advance. 9 The students have solved the problem. 10 Bobby has come back.
2 Make negatives and questions
1 Jack has washed the dog. 2 Father has already cleaned his car. 3 Mr Snowdon has made a speech at the conference. 4 Granny has bought me some cakes. 5 They have painted their old house green. 6 Liz has brought some flowers. 7 My sister has just cooked breakfast for the family. 8 The cat has already eaten fish. 9 Mrs Gracy has gone to London. 10 I have never been to India. 11 She has just broken a vase. 12 We have cleaned the room. 13 Chris has phoned his friend. 14 The train has just arrived. 15 It has just started to rain. 16 Kelly has gone to America. 17 We have left our books at school. 18 The street has changed a lot. 19 You have worked here for a long time. 20 Mandy has travelled to Greece three times.