I. Give the English equivalents of the following from the text
Similar needs; adequate care; slight fatigue; nervous strain; insufficient ventilation; improper feeding; factors of immense importance; odours from the kitchen; good ventilation; a direct current of air; thoroughly aired; the most powerful disinfectants; a suitable temperature; scrupulous cleanliness; a source of infection; growth of germs; a damp cloth; high dusting; dry sweeping; the only way; enamelled iron; a stiff brush; Excessive use of water.
1. The function of hospital wards is to keep similar patients together, either according to age, disease, or condition.
2. the care of a patient begins the moment he enters the ward.
3. Nothing is trivial if it affects the welfare and comfort of a patient..
4 The ward should be quiet, situated so that good ventilation is possible.
5. Great care should be taken to maintain a suitable temperature in the ward, and for this purpose a thermometer in the room is a necessity..
6. Every nurse should know how to keep her ward clean, and this is best learned by practice.
7. Germs live in dust and are a source of infection..
8. The only way to remove dust, the plague of all lovers of fresh air, is to wipe everything with a damp cloth.
A sick room must be kept tidy as well as clean
IV. Fill in the gaps with the word from the brackets
—A mattress should be brushed frequently with a whisk broom, especially around the tufts and edges. A mattress that is badly soiled should be sent to a cleaner and made over.
Pillows, like mattresses, should be frequently brushed, sunned, and aired. When there is profuse perspiration, or other conditions exist likely to cause the wetting or soiling of the pillow, a rubber pillow-case should be put on under the muslin one.
The sheets for hospital use should be of cotton. The blankets should be two parts of cotton to one of wool. When sheets are removed from the bed of a patient suffering from a contagious or infectious disease, they should be enveloped in a sheet and put at once into the receptacle provided for the purpose, never on chairs or tables. Every hospital has its own method of disinfecting such clothing. Rubber sheets may be cleaned by laying them on a flat surface and washing on both sides with soap and water, using a small brush if necessary. After rinsing they should be wiped, and when thoroughly dry they should be rolled rather than folded, to prevent the rubber from breaking.
A very important item in the care of the ward linen is the keeping it free from marks and stains. All stains should be removed before the articles are sent to the laundry. It is generally possible to remove blood stains, if they have not soaked through the ticking, by applying a thick cream made from raw starch and cold water. When the starch becomes dry it should be brushed away, and the application should be repeated until the stain has disappeared. For the best results the starch should be applied before the stain is dry.
A mattress shouldn’t be brushed around the tufts and edges.
Pillows should often be brushed, sunned, and aired.
The blankets should be of wool.
When sheets are removed from the bed of a patient suffering from a contagious or infectious disease, they should be put on a chair.