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Vocabulary



Terms to remember:

Abacus Gear Bone
Slab slide rule Card
Pebble draw-loom Device
Wire Needle Finite
Desktop calculator metal drum Mill
mechanical calculator thread, treadle punch/punched
Wheel Treadle Silk

Phrases:

computational devices four basic arithmetic operations to perform multiplication and division ivory rods pattern of holes roll of paper to form the pattern figured silk automated pattern weaving difference engine analytical engine stored-program digital computers programmable instructions operating cards specific functions variable cards actual data arithmetic unit

 

Task 1. Give nouns to the following verbs.

Example: to add - addition

to subtract - to extend - to control -
to multiply - to implement - to instruct -
to divide - to produce - to provide -
to develop - maintain- to indicate -
to rotate - to design - to establish -
to invent - to produce -  

Task 2Give derivatives of:

Example: philosophy - philosopher

1 mathematics - 9 selection -
2 physics - 10 indication -
3 program - 11 poetry -
4 control - 12 production -
5 history - 13 instruction -
6 design -  

Task 3Pronounce the following words correctly

decimal - [desim(E)l] finite - [`fainait]
logarithm - [logF‚riZ(E)m] idea - [ai`diE]
weave - [wi¦v] feature - [`fGtXF]
programmable - [`prFugrQmbl] data - [`deitF]
instruction - [in'strVkX(E)n] develop - [di`vFlFp]
major - [`meidJF] digit - [`didJit]

Task 4 Render the following into Russian

1. result in 2. a step toward 3. a series of punched cards 4. function like 5. providing sets of instructions 6. automated pattern weaving 7. they passed over a series of rods 8. major advance 9. a working version 10. to develop the idea 11. similar to 12. by means of

Task 5 Find in the text at least 5 sentences with passive construction. Translate them into Russian.

Task 6 Translate the following sentence from the text paying special attention to the infinitive in the function of attribute.

It was designed around two types of cards: operating cards, which indicated specific functions to be performed, and variable cards, which indicated actual data.

Practice some more sentences:

1 Computers can be defined as devices which accept informa-

tion to be logically or mathematically operated on with the results of the operations to be supplied.

2 The internal combustion engine to be used in this lorry is of a new design.

3 The computer works according to a program to be prepared in advance.

4 The new channel to be constructed here will be the most sophisticated design.

5 The texts to be typed today are on your desk.

Task 7 Give past forms and past participles of the following verbs:

1 feed - 6 perform -
2 produce - 7 use -
3 know - 8 repeat -
4 determine - 9 build -
5 appear - 10 be -

Task 8 Speak on the following.

1 What changes have mechanical calculators gone through?

2 Name the most important calculators or calculating devices, the predecessors of modern calculating machines.

3 What calculators are closer to computers from your point of view?




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