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Vocabulary



Terms and phrases to remember:

power requirements

transistor technology

cathode ray tube

ferrite code

primary internal storage medium

external/auxiliary storage

magnetic disk storage

overall efficiency

in a fraction of

sequential

random access

online

index register

Words you may need:

junction transistor – плоскостной транзистор

dependability – надежность

doughnut-shaped rings – кольца тороидальной формы

modular hardware – модульная аппаратура

building block approach – метод стандартных блоков

complete modules (breadboards) – готовые модули (макеты)

bookkeeping functions – бухгалтерские функции

to be wounded – быть намотанным

to retrieve – искать, выбирать

to be supplemented by – быть дополненным

Verbs to remember:

to occur to be replaced by to simplify to allow to substitute to rotate to locate  

Auxiliary words:

Unlike over other
Widespread because of either … or
Almost therefore thus
as great as also without

Task 1 Find in the text English equivalents for the following
Russian phrases.

Разработали первый плоскостной транзистор; преимущество вакуумной трубки над реле; благодаря транзисторам компьютеры стали использоваться более широко; надежность, малая мощность; характеризовалась главным образом; транзисторная технология; катодно-лучевые трубки; ферритовый сердечник; кольцо тороидальной формы; электрический ток, проходя по …; положение «включено», «выключено»; память на магнитных барабанах; использование магнитных лент; заменяя магнитные ленты на перфокарты; скорость обработки; позволяет пользователю разместить; вращающийся на большой скорости; без необходимости считывать; обеспечивать прямой доступ; концепция модульной аппаратуры; включать; метод стандартных блоков; создание электронных схем; с помощью данного подхода; упрощая задачи обслуживания; непосредственно подключенные к; без значительного снижения общей эффективности системы; трудоемкий; индексный регистр; арифметические действия с плавающей точкой.

Task 2Comment on the following:

1 How did transistor technology change computers?

2 What were the main changes that occurred in most second-generation computers?

Task 3Find 5 sentences with passive construction in the text and translate them into Russian.

Task 4Write down the Past forms of the verbs written below:

to lead - to replace - can -
to develop - to wind - to need -
to make - to pass - to have -
to characterize - to represent - to read -
to occur - to store - to come -
to increase - to locate - to provide -
to require - to retrieve - to design
to operate - to substitute - to simplify -
to lower - to go - to consume -

Task 5 Single out the main points of the text. While giving the information you think important use the following phrases:

The text looks at…

According to the text…

We should specify that…

One of the main points is…

We shouldn’t forget that…

The text deals with…

 

TEXT 2 THE SECOND GENERATION COMPUTERS
HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT (PART 2)

 

Along with the refinements in hardware, second-generation computers were also characterized by further refinements in programming languages. Second-generation computers often used high-level languages to instruct the computer on how to perform processing tasks. High-level languages resembled English much more than symbolic languages and hence were easier to use. The first high-level language to achieve widespread acceptance was FORTRAN (Formula Translator), developed in the mid-1950s by IBM. libraries, and batch monitors.1954. The first transistorized digital computer, The version of the language known as FORTRAN IV was standardized in 1963 and is still used extensively for scientific applications. Because FORTRAN lacked many features desirable for business data processing, another language, called COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language), was developed in 1961. This language was geared toward processing large numbers of business transactions easily. ALGOL (Algorithmic Language) and APL (A Programming Language) were developed in 1960 as scientific languages. With these languages, computer manufacturers began to provide system software such as compilers, subroutine TRADIC, was built by Bell Laboratories.

1958. The National Cash Register computer NCR 304 was delivered. It was the first commercial transistorized digital computer.

I960. The IBM 1401 was delivered, and many thousands of this small tran­sistorized computer were sold. IBM also delivered the 7090, a transistorized scientific computer using magnetic core memory with over 32,000 36-bit words of storage.

The TRANSAC S-2000 was manufactured by Philco Corporation. This was a large-scale, scientific, stored-program, transistorized digital computer with magnetic core storage. The CDC 1604 was delivered by Control Data Corporation. This was a transistorized machine with a 48-bit word length.

The ATLAS computer system, built at the University of Manchester in England, was introduced. It incorporated a technique for performing program overlays auto­matically, which is known today as virtual memory.With main memories becoming larger and cheaper, the concept of virtual memory was expanded to facilitate mul­tiprogramming.

1960-1961. The UNTVAC LARC (Livermore Atomic Research Computer) and IBM 7030 (STRETCH)computers were delivered. These rival machines were very large transistorized computers for their time. Only two LARC and seven STRETCH machines were delivered, serving as test vehicles for many features found in third-generation computers.

1964. The CDC 6600 computer was delivered to the Livermore AEC Lab­oratory. This machine was more than three times as powerful as the IBM 7030 computer. It could execute, on the average, more than 3 million instructions per second and achieved this effective speed by its parallel architecture, which had multiple arithmetic and logical units and used ten small computers for I/O operations.

Terms and phrases to remember:

programming languages  
high level languages  
to perform processing tasks  
symbolic languages  
widespread acceptance  
version of the language  
scientific applications  
business data processing  
Compiler  
Subroutine library  
transistorized digital computer  
virtual memory  
Multiprogramming  
parallel architecture  
Word length  

Words you may need:

refinement – уточнение batch monitor – монитор пакетного режима program overlay – оверлейный сегмент программы test vehicle – контрольный аппарат to be geared – быть приспособленным

Verbs to remember:

to be characterized
to instruct
to resemble
to achieve
to be standardized
to lack
to be introduced
to incorporate
to be sold
to overlay
to be manufactured
to incorporate

Auxiliary words:

 

Further As… as Because
Hence much more on the average
Forward More than  

Task 1 Use the verbs in brackets in passive construction:

1 Computers (to characterize) by further refinements in programming languages.

2 FORTRAN (to develop) in the mid – 1905 s by IBM.

3 Special I/O processors (to introduce) to supervise I/O operations.

4 I/O instructions (to store) in main memory.

5 The results (to place) on a magnetic tape.

6 A small auxiliary computer (to use) to process the input and output magnetic tapes offline.

7 This technique (to know) today as virtual memory.

8 These features (can find) in third generation computers.

9 Only some of them (to deliver) by the corporation this year.

10 The concept of virtual memory (to expand) to facilitate multiprogramming.

Task 2 The following suffixes are used to form different parts of speech:

nouns: -ty; -er; -ment; -tion; -sion;

adjectives: -able; -ance; -ing; -ic; -al;

verbs: -ize/ise

There are some words in the chart. With the help of the suffixes above fill in the gaps.

Noun Adjective   Noun Adjective
Desire       resist
  computable   acceptance  
technology       manufacture
program       achieve
accessibility     standardization  
  Magnetic     provide
  scientific instructive     perform

 

Noun Verb Adjective
Avail avail  
  to access  
development    
    computable
Operation   operating
  to symbolize  
  to signify significant

Task 3 Remember the names of different programming languages and their meanings.

Fortran – formula translator, Cobol – common business-oriented language, ALGOL – algorithmic language, APL – a program language

Task 4 Match the verbs from (A) with the nouns from (B).

A B
to characterize to program to instruct to develop to provide to standardize to incorporate to perform to execute to achieve a version a program instructions a technique effective speech a language subroutine library computers scientific applications a computer

 




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