Task 1 Find in the text English equivalents for the following Russian phrases.
Разработали первый плоскостной транзистор; преимущество вакуумной трубки над реле; благодаря транзисторам компьютеры стали использоваться более широко; надежность, малая мощность; характеризовалась главным образом; транзисторная технология; катодно-лучевые трубки; ферритовый сердечник; кольцо тороидальной формы; электрический ток, проходя по …; положение «включено», «выключено»; память на магнитных барабанах; использование магнитных лент; заменяя магнитные ленты на перфокарты; скорость обработки; позволяет пользователю разместить; вращающийся на большой скорости; без необходимости считывать; обеспечивать прямой доступ; концепция модульной аппаратуры; включать; метод стандартных блоков; создание электронных схем; с помощью данного подхода; упрощая задачи обслуживания; непосредственно подключенные к; без значительного снижения общей эффективности системы; трудоемкий; индексный регистр; арифметические действия с плавающей точкой.
Task 2Comment on the following:
1 How did transistor technology change computers?
2 What were the main changes that occurred in most second-generation computers?
Task 3Find 5 sentences with passive construction in the text and translate them into Russian.
Task 4Write down the Past forms of the verbs written below:
to lead -
to replace -
to develop -
to wind -
to need -
to make -
to pass -
to have -
to characterize -
to represent -
to read -
to occur -
to store -
to come -
to increase -
to locate -
to provide -
to require -
to retrieve -
to operate -
to substitute -
to simplify -
to lower -
to go -
to consume -
Task 5 Single out the main points of the text. While giving the information you think important use the following phrases:
The text looks at…
According to the text…
We should specify that…
One of the main points is…
We shouldn’t forget that…
The text deals with…
TEXT 2 THE SECOND GENERATION COMPUTERS HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT (PART 2)
Along with the refinements in hardware, second-generation computers were also characterized by further refinements in programming languages. Second-generation computers often used high-level languages to instruct the computer on how to perform processing tasks. High-level languages resembled English much more than symbolic languages and hence were easier to use. The first high-level language to achieve widespread acceptance was FORTRAN (Formula Translator), developed in the mid-1950s by IBM. libraries, and batch monitors.1954. The first transistorized digital computer, The version of the language known as FORTRAN IV was standardized in 1963 and is still used extensively for scientific applications. Because FORTRAN lacked many features desirable for business data processing, another language, called COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language), was developed in 1961. This language was geared toward processing large numbers of business transactions easily. ALGOL (Algorithmic Language) and APL (A Programming Language) were developed in 1960 as scientific languages. With these languages, computer manufacturers began to provide system software such as compilers, subroutine TRADIC, was built by Bell Laboratories.
1958. The National Cash Register computer NCR 304 was delivered. It was the first commercial transistorized digital computer.
I960. The IBM 1401 was delivered, and many thousands of this small transistorized computer were sold. IBM also delivered the 7090, a transistorized scientific computer using magnetic core memory with over 32,000 36-bit words of storage.
The TRANSAC S-2000 was manufactured by Philco Corporation. This was a large-scale, scientific, stored-program, transistorized digital computer with magnetic core storage. The CDC 1604 was delivered by Control Data Corporation. This was a transistorized machine with a 48-bit word length.
The ATLAS computer system, built at the University of Manchester in England, was introduced. It incorporated a technique for performing program overlays automatically, which is known today as virtual memory.With main memories becoming larger and cheaper, the concept of virtual memory was expanded to facilitate multiprogramming.
1960-1961. The UNTVAC LARC (Livermore Atomic Research Computer) and IBM 7030 (STRETCH)computers were delivered. These rival machines were very large transistorized computers for their time. Only two LARC and seven STRETCH machines were delivered, serving as test vehicles for many features found in third-generation computers.
1964. The CDC 6600 computer was delivered to the Livermore AEC Laboratory. This machine was more than three times as powerful as the IBM 7030 computer. It could execute, on the average, more than 3 million instructions per second and achieved this effective speed by its parallel architecture, which had multiple arithmetic and logical units and used ten small computers for I/O operations.
Terms and phrases to remember:
high level languages
to perform processing tasks
version of the language
business data processing
transistorized digital computer
Words you may need:
refinement – уточнение
batch monitor – монитор пакетного режима
program overlay – оверлейный сегмент программы
test vehicle – контрольный аппарат
to be geared – быть приспособленным
Verbs to remember:
to be characterized
to be standardized
to be introduced
to be sold
to be manufactured
on the average
Task 1 Use the verbs in brackets in passive construction:
1 Computers (to characterize) by further refinements in programming languages.
2 FORTRAN (to develop) in the mid – 1905 s by IBM.
3 Special I/O processors (to introduce) to supervise I/O operations.
4 I/O instructions (to store) in main memory.
5 The results (to place) on a magnetic tape.
6 A small auxiliary computer (to use) to process the input and output magnetic tapes offline.
7 This technique (to know) today as virtual memory.
8 These features (can find) in third generation computers.
9 Only some of them (to deliver) by the corporation this year.
10 The concept of virtual memory (to expand) to facilitate multiprogramming.
Task 2 The following suffixes are used to form different parts of speech:
nouns: -ty; -er; -ment; -tion; -sion;
adjectives: -able; -ance; -ing; -ic; -al;
There are some words in the chart. With the help of the suffixes above fill in the gaps.
Task 3 Remember the names of different programming languages and their meanings.
Fortran – formula translator, Cobol – common business-oriented language, ALGOL – algorithmic language, APL – a program language
Task 4 Match the verbs from (A) with the nouns from (B).