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Supplement



Vocabulary study. Provide definitions to the italicised words:

1) In order to keep a business afloat, good management is necessary.

2) The panel was beset by criticism that it was anti-labor.

3) When the manufacturing plant shut down, its 1200 workers faced a calamitous situation.

4) Environmentalists are confronting those corporations responsible for polluting our air and water.

5) If you default on your mortgage, the bank may repossess your home.

6) Ever since the national currency was devalued, the local people have been having a hard time, but foreign tourists find everything inexpensive.

7) The tax forms have been rewritten to embrace the new tax reforms.

8) The skindiver was in great peril when a shark approached.

9) She prodded her son to try out for track when he was rejected for football.

10) The living conditions in many cities of the world have gotten worse because of rampant population growth.

11) The two countries had failed to reach an agreement on trade, and both initiated retaliatory measures against the other.

12) The reporter said his statements were not retractable because he had firm evidence that his facts were correct.

13) During the Great Depression, Franklin Roosevelt initiated several government projects that would stoke up the economy of the United States.

TAsk 3 (Auding)

 

the problem of coping with inflation and variation in the dollar’s value, as well as the generally volatile nature of the world economy, has led many observers to call for adjustment or reform of the world monetary and financial system. Concrete efforts at reform began as early as 1944, when most of the world’s leading nations sent representatives to a conference at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was established for the purpose of stabilizing national currencies. It was created with a fund of $8.8 thousand-million, of which the United States contributed approximately 25 percent.

The Bretton Woods conference also resulted in the establishment of the World Bank, a multilateral institution designed to promote world trade and economic development by making loans to nations that might not otherwise be able to raise the funds necessary for participation in the world market. The World Bank receives its capital from member countries, which subscribe in proportion to their economic importance. The United States contributed approximately 35 percent of the World Bank’s original $9.1 thousand-million capitalization. The members of the World Bank hope they will be paid back in full by nations that have used their loans to strengthen weak economies. Eventually, it is hoped, these countries will have developed to such an extent that they can become full trading partners with the more developed countries, manufacturing their own products and trading them for other goods.

 

TAsk 3 (Auding)

 

the problem of coping with inflation and variation in the dollar’s value, as well as the generally volatile nature of the world economy, has led many observers to call for adjustment or reform of the world monetary and financial system. Concrete efforts at reform began as early as 1944, when most of the world’s leading nations sent representatives to a conference at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was established for the purpose of stabilizing national currencies. It was created with a fund of $8.8 thousand-million, of which the United States contributed approximately 25 percent.

The Bretton Woods conference also resulted in the establishment of the World Bank, a multilateral institution designed to promote world trade and economic development by making loans to nations that might not otherwise be able to raise the funds necessary for participation in the world market. The World Bank receives its capital from member countries, which subscribe in proportion to their economic importance. The United States contributed approximately 35 percent of the World Bank’s original $9.1 thousand-million capitalization. The members of the World Bank hope they will be paid back in full by nations that have used their loans to strengthen weak economies. Eventually, it is hoped, these countries will have developed to such an extent that they can become full trading partners with the more developed countries, manufacturing their own products and trading them for other goods.

TAsk 3 (Auding)

 

the problem of coping with inflation and variation in the dollar’s value, as well as the generally volatile nature of the world economy, has led many observers to call for adjustment or reform of the world monetary and financial system. Concrete efforts at reform began as early as 1944, when most of the world’s leading nations sent representatives to a conference at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was established for the purpose of stabilizing national currencies. It was created with a fund of $8.8 thousand-million, of which the United States contributed approximately 25 percent.

The Bretton Woods conference also resulted in the establishment of the World Bank, a multilateral institution designed to promote world trade and economic development by making loans to nations that might not otherwise be able to raise the funds necessary for participation in the world market. The World Bank receives its capital from member countries, which subscribe in proportion to their economic importance. The United States contributed approximately 35 percent of the World Bank’s original $9.1 thousand-million capitalization. The members of the World Bank hope they will be paid back in full by nations that have used their loans to strengthen weak economies. Eventually, it is hoped, these countries will have developed to such an extent that they can become full trading partners with the more developed countries, manufacturing their own products and trading them for other goods.




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