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Итоговый лексический тест

Государственный английского языка

Энергетический Курс 4

Университет Дисциплина: английский язык Аспект: Деловой английский, ч.2.

Составитель: Дударева Н.А.

Итоговый лексический тест


Chapter 1 (31 entries)

What is Economics?


acquire (land, business, reputation, knowledge, language, etc.)

acquired immune deficiency syndrome, AIDS

acquisition (second language acquisition, ~ of land )

allocate smth. to smb. or for smth. (resources, time, money)

alter (radically, dramatically, ~ beyond recognition)

alteration (minor, major ~), undergo ~s.

alternate, v. ( periods, seasons ~)

alternative (ways, approaches, suggestions; medicine, therapies)

commodity (agricultural commodities, Commodity/Labor Exchange)

consumption ( mass, domestic, industrial ~; conspicuous ~ )

consume (goods, energy, time, time-consuming),

consumer (~ goods, ~ society)

enact ( law, bill)

forego, forwent, forgone (earnings, income, lunch)

fundamental (change, difference, distinction, mistake, error, human rights)

hoard (food, clothes, supplies)

incentive (create, provide , give ~; financial, tax ~, strong, powerful ~)

intervention (military, medical ~)

intervene (in a dispute, a fight)

optimize (use of resources, expenses)

optimum (conditions)

promote (products, ideas, people, development, recycling, violence)

promotion (good prospects for ~)


(ir)relevant (documents, information, experience)

scarce (resource)

scarcity (of funds, employment opportunities)

favorable balance of trade

laissez faire

production cost, marginal cost of production

foregone earnings



Chapter 2 (31 entries)

Supply, Demand and Market Price


to be attuned to (people’s needs, youth culture)

concede to smb. on smth. (e.g. to terrorists, on privileges), concession (e.g. tax ~, travel ~ to pensioners)

conspicuous (e.g. ~consumption, success,failure)


contemporary (music, art); most of his contemporaries (noun)

conventional (methods, wisdom, medicine); ~ war(without the use of nuclear weapons)

diminish (influence, importance; his enthusiasm ~ed)

equilibrium (to maintain, upset ~)

exert (~influence, pressure, control; ~oneself)

function (~as smth., ~ efficiently)

leisure (activities, facilities, opportunities), at (your) ~, ~wear, leisure class

margin (profit~); marginal (changes, improvements)

maximize/minimize (profits, benefits)

stifle (~innovations, business, democracy; ~ a smile)

tendency (to do smth., ~for smb. to do smth.)

potential (disaster, danger) – adj. To reach, realize your (full) ~.

rows and columns (in a table)

horizontal axis

vertical axis

demand curve slopes downward

supply curve slopes upward


intersection point

dot, dotted line

holding everything else constant

equilibrium and nonequilibrium prices

excess supply/ demand


longterm unemployment

conspicuous consumption


Chapter 3 (33 entries)

The Entrepreneur in Market Economies


aggressive (behavior, policy – negative; personality, ~ treatment plan - positive)

coax (~smth.; ~ smb. into doing smth.)

deplete (food supply, forests)

discard (a plan, an idea)

dominate (the market, the league, the conversation)

exploit (workers, children: mineral wealth, opportunities)

incessant (flow of traffic, rain, crying); ~ly

liability, ~ insurance; to be liable for smth.

minimize (costs, damage)

offensive (language, behavior: ~ operations, weapons)

patron, patron-of-the-arts. This car park is for patrons only.

revamp (a plan, a company/ branch)

shuffle (responsibilities, people, cards)

skeptic (noun), skeptical (about smth.), skepticism (treat smb. with~)

speculate (on/about smth.), speculation (to stimulate, provoke, fuel ~; pure ~) speculative

stimulate (investment, production, economy, interest)

visionary (reformer, leadership), a visionary(noun)

pie graphs

circle graphs

speculative risks

pure risks

risk management

risk avoidance

risk reduction

risk assumption

risk transfer

liability insurance

property insurance

business interruption insurance

venture capitalists; business venture; joint venture

take a mortgage

State of the Union Address (by the USA President)

management address on the state of the company



Chapter 4 (21 entries)

Production and Marketing


accessories (car, kitchen, computer ~)

attribute smth. to smb. (success, difficulties, qualities)

component (essential, key, major, principal ~s)

defective (product, car brakes); design/production defects

fantasize about smth.

longevity (to promote health and ~)

perceive, perceived (quality, threat, advantage)

phenomenal (success, increase, growth)

reputation (earn, gain, enjoy a ~ as sth.; good/bad~), live up to one’s ~

trade-off (sth. for/against sth.)

by tenfold (also: increased tenfold)

to participate in production decisions

performance , high performance technology, to be fired for poor ~, ~-related pay, ~ review/assessment

features (distinctive ~, safety ~)


conformance to smth.(~ to standards)



toll free “hot lines”

perceived quality

kit (emergency repair ~, first aid ~, mending~)



Chapter 5 (33 entries)

The Role of Labor in Business


absenteeism, absentee

adversary, adversarial (relations, system)

charge smb. with smth.; be in charge of; take charge of; to charge for (delivery, a service); to charge a fee, interest, rent.

falter (economy is faltering, her voice faltered)

foster (a sense of community, higher marale); ~family, parents, child

launch (a product, a new magazine)

regard, with ~to (=regarding, concerning smt.)

seniority (5 years ~)

turnover, annual ~ of $2 bln., ~rose/fell; staff/labor ~.

to air complaints/grievances

to break one’s neck/back

competitive edge

company town

to deal a blow/a double blow

hot seat

a piece of the action

to pool resources

jobholders’ meeting

peer review panel

Employee Involvement (EI) Program

ride exercise bicycles

day-care facilities

blue-chip (stock, company, investment)

declining performance

to be headquartered in

major fuel

(the only means of transporting) bulk freight

the plant prospered

customer base

reach crisis proportions

recession (economy/industry was in ~, to recede)

to dismiss (smb. from a job, the class was dismissed early)

close down unprofitable plants


Chapter 6 (34 entries)

The Role of Government in Market Economies


assurance (to lack ~, complete~, written ~)

on the brink of smth. or doing smth.

evade (taxes, responsibility, questions)

generate (jobs, energy, income)

inflation (~ rate, high/low, ~rises/falls)

prevail, prevailing (price, conditions, attitudes)

reimburse (costs, expenses, ~smb. for smth.)

sanctuary (animal, wildlife ~, to seek political ~)


stable, stability, stabilize, stabilization

(in)solvency, (in)solvent

to be subject to (control, change)

teeter, ~on the brink of bankruptcy

trigger (a response, a reaction, sales increase, a depression)

coup d’etat

bankruptcy, to go bankrupt, to declare oneself bankrupt

the market would be “cleared”

the broken line

government interference

lay off workers (end employment, esp. temporarily)

a sliding scale of payments

hourly wages/wages per hour

rent (pay ~, charge ~); to rent (a car, a flat/apartment)

rental (property, ~ agency)

revenues (tax ~, total ~)

value added tax

graduated/progressive income tax

sales tax

corporate taxes

tax deductions (receive ~), to be tax exempt

collect taxes, tax collector

before tax, after tax

to assign a weight

purchasing power



Chapter 7 (38 entries)

The Global Economy


keep smth. afloat

be beset by (criticism, money troubles))

calamitous, calamity

confront smb., smth.

confrontation with (police), violent ~, to avoid ~

default (on a payment, mortgage)

devalue (currency), devaluation

embrace (changes, a new concept/idea); ~ smb. (to hug)

innovate (ideas, methods, equipment), innovative (approach, manager)

innovations (technological ~, managerial~)

peril, to be in ~, perilous (a ~ journey)

prod smb. into doing smth.; to give smb. a prod (= to persuade, encourage)

rampant (growth, development); to ramp up (production) = to increase

retaliate against smb. for smth.. ~ by doing smth.; retaliation (for the arrest of terrorists)

retaliatory (measures, attacks)

retract (a statement)

retractable (fishing rod, a knife with a ~ blade)

stagnate, stagnant (economy, water, stagnation (in economy, in smb’s career)

stoke up (inflation, economy; fears, public unrest)

unemployment rate

rate of inflation

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Less Developed Countries (LDC’s)

Gross National Product (GNP)

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

austerity programs

average life expectancy

infant mortality rate

per (1000) live births

literacy rate

per capita

slump (in prices, profits, sales); economic ~


well up


casual (atmosphere, interview, clothes; ~ and unskilled workforce)

casualties = killed or injured in an accident or military action (heavy ~)

DIY (~market), do- it- yourself, do-it-yourselfer



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