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Future Simple



I. Express agreement using “You are right”:

1. Next generation computers will use natural languages and a speech input.

2. They will store and process knowledge.

3. This electronic translator will help us to study foreign languages.

4. We shall attend the lecture on microprocessors next Monday.

5. In future computers will have optical devices.

II. Express disagreement using “I am afraid you are mistaken”:

1. We shall study the theory of programming next term.

2. At the next seminar we shall discuss the invention of the first electronic computer.

3. They will compile the program next week.

4. He will study such programming languages as PASCAL and C.

5. This student will make an interesting report on the problems of storage capacity.

III. Change the following sentences into interrogative:

1. This supercomputer will perform 10 billion operations per second.

2. In future machines will solve many problems which today are in competence of man.

3. This microcomputer will ideally answer the aims of education.

IV. Ask as many special questions as you can:

1. It will take me about three weeks to write a report on the latest computer languages.

2. At his next lecture the professor will speak about input devices.

3. By the end of this decade exceptionally faster and smaller computers will replace those in use today.

V. Read the sentences, mind the tense and the conjunctions of subordinate clauses. Translate the sentences:

1. You will find it difficult to communicate with a computer unless you have more practice.

2. When he gets a book “Microcomputer Design”, he will give it to you.

3. We shall not hold the conference until our scientific supervisor comes back from London.

4. If you change the method of your experiment you will get different results.

VI. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense:

1. I (to discuss) these problems with our system-engineer as soon as I (to see) him.

2. You (to do) a computer provided you (to know) programming.

3. Before he (to carry out) complex calculations he (to learn) how to operate the computer.

4. When we (to complete) our experiment we (to help) you with your experiment.

5. If the voltage between the first pair of terminals (to cause) a change of current between a second pair of terminals then we (to have) an amplifier.

Section C Reading

I. Using your general knowledge name different types of memory units of a computer. Look through paragraph 1 to check your ideas.

II. Skim paragraph 2 and name two kinds of main memory and their main differences.

III. Study the following words and word combinations and make sure you know their translations. Use a specialized dictionary in case of any difficulties.

main (primary) memory

secondary memory

random-access memory (RAM)

static RAM

dynamic RAM

flip-flop

capacitor

access time

 

IV. Using the method of conversion form verbs from the following nouns, check their pronunciation and meaning in the dictionary.

process — base —
access — change —
input — charge —
output — control —
increase — record —
subject —  

V. Read the text attentively and name the operating principle of the main memory.

5 10 15 20 25 The memory unit of a digital computer typically has a main (or primary) memory, cache, and secondary (or auxiliary) memory. The main memory holds data and instructions for immediate use by the computer's ALU. It receives this information from an input device or an auxiliary storage unit. In most cases, the main memory is a high-speed random-access memory (RAM) — i.e., a memory in which specific contents can be accessed (read or written) directly in a very short time regardless of the sequence (and hence location) in which they were recorded. Two types of main memory are possible with random-access circuits — static random-access memory (SRAM) and dynamic random-access memory (DRAM). A single memory chip is made up of several million memory cells. In a SRAM chip, each memory cell consists of a single flip-flop (for storing the binary digits 1 or 0) and a few more transistors (for reading or writing operation). In a DRAM chip, each memory cell consists of a capacitor (rather than a flip-flop) and a single transistor. When a capacitor is electrically charged, it is said to store the binary 1, and when discharged, it represents 0; these changes are controlled by the transistor. Because it has fewer components, DRAM requires a smaller area on a chip than does SRAM, and hence a DRAM chip can have a greater memory capacity, though its access time is slower than that of SRAM.   The cache is a SRAM-based memory of small capacity that has faster access time than in the main memory and that temporarily stores data and part of a program for quicker processing by the ALU.

VI. Main idea
Which statement or statements best express the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices?

 1. SRAM is more important in the computer memory than DRAM.

 2. Various types of memory have different access time and thus are used for different purposes.

 3. Cache memory is the only memory used in modern computers because of its faster access time.

 4. Speed and random access are important in processing information.

VII. Understanding the passage
Decide whether the following statements are true or false (T/F) by referring to the information in the text. Then make the necessary changes so that the false statements become true.

T F

                              1. A SRAM chip is made up of a single flip-flop and a single transistor. 2. In a digital computer the memory unit consists of several types of memory. 3. The sequence of the recorded information is very important in RAM. 4. Flip-flop is used mainly for writing operations. 5. The transistor in a DRAM chip is responsible for the capacitor operation. 6. Cache memory stores data on a permanent basis. 7. There are no other differences between DRAM and SRAM except their access time.

VII. Locating information
Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed. Give the line reference.

…… 1. Random-access circuits are used in 2 types of primary memory.

…… 2. The cache is a variant of SRAM memory.

…… 3. DRAM is more compact than SRAM.

…… 4. The time of recording is unimportant in random-access memory.

…… 5. Flip-flop and transistors are responsible for different operations.

…… 6. The transistor in a DRAM chip is some kind of a controller.

IX. Contextual reference
Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to.

1. … in which they were recorded… 2. … it represents 0… 3. … because it has fewer… 4. … though its access time… 5. … slower than that of SRAM… 6. … and that temporarily stores… (l. 8) ……………………… (l. 20) ……………………… (l. 21) ……………………… (l. 23) ……………………… (l. 24) ……………………… (l. 27) ………………………

X. Understanding words
Refer back to the text and find synonyms for the following words.

1. order 2. to consist 3. several 4. to demand 5. faster (l. 8) ……………………… (l. 14) ……………………… (l. 16) ……………………… (l. 22) ……………………… (l. 28) ………………………

Now refer back to the text and find antonyms for the following words.

6. main 7. output 8. sequential-access 9. faster 10. permanently (l. 2) ……………………… (l. 4) ……………………… (l. 6) ……………………… (l. 24) ……………………… (l. 27) ………………………

XI. Word forms
Choose the appropriate word to complete the sentences. Make sure to use the correct form.

1. electricity, electric, electrical, electrically

a. A lot of … is needed to operate large computer systems.

b. Alexander Graham Bell invented the … light bulb.

c. Many students today are studying to become … engineers.

 

2. representation, represent, representative, represented, representing

a. In the computer the letters of the alphabet are … in terms of 0s and 1s.

b. The Morse Code is composed of dots and dashes … the letters of the alphabet and numerals.

c. Each column of punched holes on a card … a letter, a number, or a special character.

d. The binary … of the decimal number 10 is 100.

 

3. storage, store, stored, storing

a. The computer memory is capable of … a lot of information for a short period of time.

b. The recording heads of a tape drive accessed the information which was … on a tape.

c. There are now telephones that can … up to several hundred numbers in their memory.

 

4. access, accessible, accessibility, accessed, accessing

a. Do you have … to the students’ files in the database?

b. To … information recorded on a disk, a disk drive must be used.

c. Tapes were a faster medium than punched cards for … information.

d. A cylinder is … by all the recording heads acting at once.

XII. Content review
a. Match the following words in column A with the statements in
column B.

  A B
  1. capacitor 2. random access a. the information contained in the memory cell
  3. contents 4. sequential access b. a piece of equipment used to collect and store electricity
5. access time c. means any part of memory can be read equally quickly
    d. time taken by a computer to find and use information
    e. information must be read in a fixed pattern

b. Complete the following statements with appropriate words from the box. (Some can be used more than once.) Make sure you use the correct form, i.e. singular or plural.

main memory capacity random-access memory internal
semiconductor memory system processing temporarily
information circuit central processor  

 

Cache is an additional … that … stores frequently used instructions and data for quicker … by the … . Both … and cache are …, … that use …-based … . The smaller … of the cache reduces the time required to locate data within it and provide it to the computer for … .

When a computer’s … accesses its internal memory, it first checks to see if the … it needs is stored in the cache. If it is, the cache returns the data to the processor. If the … isn’t in the cache, the processor retrieves it from the … .

XIII. Using a dictionary translate paragraph 2 into Russian.

 

 

Unit 6
Nonvolatile Memories

Section A Presentations

A. Public speaking

1. You are chairing a conference. Make a speech of welcome on the first morning.

2. You are a guest speaker at an English Rotary Club lunch. Introduce yourself and say a little about Rotary Club activities in your country.

3. Introduce the guest speaker at your company’s annual dinner and dance, then thank him / her at the end.

4. Think of a situation in which you might be called to speak in public. Explain the situation, then give the speech.

Welcoming   Questions
Ø Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. Ø Welcome to… Ø It’s very nice to see you all here today.     Ø If anyone has any questions, please feel free to interrupt. Ø If you have any questions, I’ll do my best to answer them (later).
Introducing a speaker   Thanking a speaker
Ø Miss Eustace has kindly agreed to come along today to speak to us about … Ø Ladies and Gentlemen. Miss Caroline Eustace …. (clapping) Ø It gives me great pleasure to introduce Miss Caroline Eustace …. (clapping)       Ø On behalf of everyone here, I’d like to thank Miss Eustace for a most interesting and entertaining / enlightening / informative talk. Ø Thank you very much indeed Miss Eustace. I’m sure I’m speaking for us all when I say how much we’ve appreciated your being here today.
Finishing    
Ø Thank you very much. Ø Thank you for being so attentive.    

(to be continued)

Section B Language Focus. Continuous Tenses

 

 

I. Give the present participle of the following verbs:

write, use, compile

II. Give the verb in the following sentences in the Present Continuous (Omit the adverbials “every day, usually, often”):

1. My friend usually works hard at his English.

2. The students often discuss the problems of hardware with their teacher.

3. We work in the computer centre every day.

III. Answer the question What are you doing?:

1. You are at a lecture on informatics.

2. You are in the computer room.

3. You are at an English lesson.

IV. Give the interrogative and negative forms of the following sentences:

1. The lecturer is speaking about theories of logic and binary numbers by Leibniz.

2. We are reading an error message on the screen.

3. I am typing the name of the program on the keyboard.

4. He is writing a new program.

V. Ask special questions:

1. My friend is working at his term project on informatics.

2. The students in classroom 303 are listening to the lecture on the history of computers.

3. He is sending SMS to his friend in Poland.

VI. Answer the question “What are you doing tomorrow afternoon?” using the prompts:

to study my English; to take the test on mathematics; to write the report for the conference; to discuss some problems with the tutor; to listen to a very interesting lecture on the history of computer development….

VII. Translate into English:

1. Где профессор Новиков? – Он читает лекцию об аналоговых компьютерах в аудитории 525.

2. Куда ты идешь? – Я иду в библиотеку, хочу взять книги по информатике. В пятницу я сдаю экзамен.

3. Не входите в аудиторию. Студенты пишут там контрольную работу.

4. На какую тему ты пишешь доклад сейчас? – “Аппаратное обеспечение ЭВМ”.

5. Я собираюсь выступить на конференции.

6. В следующий вторник я уезжаю в Москву на конференцию.

VIII. Say what you or other people were doing some time ago. Use the Past Continuous Tense:

e.g. The whole day yesterday I was busy. I was writing an article.

 

1. On Sunday I was in the library.

2. At 10.30 a.m. on Friday I was at the University.

3. On Thursday morning I was at work.

4. At 8 o’clock yesterday evening we were still at the office.

IX. Express agreement using That’s right or disagreement using I can’t agree with you or On the contrary:

1. The computer is loading the operational system now.

2. They were solving that algebraic problem all the evening yesterday.

3. He was writing a report on the binary system when we came.

4. He is making a report on data types at the seminar now.

5. From 3 to 5 p.m. yesterday we were discussing computer architecture problems.

6. While Pat was compiling a program Nick was speaking to the chief engineer.

X. Put the verbs in brackets in the Simple or Continuous tenses:

1. We (to discuss) the difference between analog and digital computers now.

2. We (to discuss) various problems at the seminars.

3. I (not to write) a new computer program last month.

4. I (to write) a report when the telephone rang.

5. You (to answer) all the questions at the exam?

6. He (to answer) the students’ questions at the moment.

7. When I called him he (to compile) a program.

XI. Translate into English:

1. Я могу видеть профессора Белова? – К сожалению, нет. Он читает лекцию студентам третьего курса в аудитории 310.

2. Не входите в аудиторию. Студенты сдают там экзамен по программному обеспечению ЭВМ.

3. Что ты делал вчера в читальном зале, когда я зашел туда? – Я писал доклад по аппаратному обеспечению ЭВМ.

4. Вы регулярно читаете литературу по информатике на английском языке? – Да, я стараюсь делать это регулярно. Вот и сейчас я читаю журнал “Computer Press”.

Section C Reading

I. SRAMs and DRAMs are volatile memories. Can you give any examples of non-volatile ones. Look through paragraph 1 to check your ideas.

II. Skim paragraph 2 and name the main advantages of optical disks.

III. Study the following words and word combinations and make sure you know their translations. Use a specialized dictionary in case of any difficulties.

nonvolatile memory

read-only memory (ROM)

operating system

to erase

to alter

optical disk

IV. State the type of word-building of the following words and translate them into Russian.

increasingly, respectively, modification, erasable, alterable, time-consuming, gigabyte, information

V. Read the text attentively and name the differences between types of nonvolatile memories.

5 10 15 20 25 Besides main and auxiliary memories, other forms of memory exist for specialized purposes. An increasingly important class is that of nonvolatile memories, which, unlike SRAMs and DRAMs, do not lose their content when the power supply is cut off. Some nonvolatile memories, such as read-only memory (ROM), are not rewritable once manufactured or written. Each memory cell of a ROM chip either has a transistor or none, representing the binary digit 0 or 1, respectively. ROMs are generally employed for programs designed for repeated use without modification, as, for example, the operating system of a personal microcomputer. By contrast, EPROM (erasable programmable ROM), EAROM (electrically alterable ROM), and flash memory are types of nonvolatile memories that are rewritable, though the writing is far more time-consuming than reading. They are thus used as special-purpose memories where writing is seldom necessary.   Another form of memory is the optical disk, which uses optical rather than electrical means for reading and writing. It developed from videodisc technology during the early 1980s. Optical disks have a greater memory capacity than most magnetic disks; the largest ones can store 1.5 gigabytes of information, which is equal to about 700,000 pages of printed material. Optical disks come in sizes ranging from 3.5 to 12 inches (30 cm). They are widely used as auxiliary memory when large memory capacity is required.

VI. Main idea
Which statement or statements best express the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices?

 1. Nonvolatile memories are less important than main and auxiliary memories.

 2. There are several types of nonvolatile memories.

 3. Optical disks is the only type of auxiliary memory used in computer systems.

VII. Understanding the passage
Decide whether the following statements are true or false (T/F) by referring to the information in the text. Then make the necessary changes so that the false statements become true.

T F

                            1. Optical disks aren’t widely used because of their small memory capacity. 2. EPROM and EAROM are employed mainly for writing purposes. 3. Nonvolatile memories can keep data and information within a few minutes after the electricity is off. 4. Flash memory is a rewritable type of nonvolatile memories. 5. Optical disks are manufactured only in one size of 3.5 inches. 6. A ROM chip is based on the operating principle of the transistor. 7. Nonvolatile memories are usually used for general purposes.

VII. Locating information
Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed. Give the line reference.

…… 1. Storage capacity of optical disks makes them popular among users.

…… 2. ROMs are used for long-term keeping of the information and data.

…… 3. A ROM chip uses the binary system.

…… 4. EPROM and EAROM are mostly used as one-purpose memories.

…… 5. Optical disks use operating means different from those used in other disk types.

IX. Contextual reference
Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to.

1. … do not lose their content… 2. … they are used… 3. … which uses optical… 4. … it developed from… 5. … the largest ones can… 6. … they are widely used… (l. 5) ……………………… (l. 16) ……………………… (l. 19) ……………………… (l. 20) ……………………… (l. 24) ……………………… (l. 26) ………………………

X. Understanding words
Refer back to the text and find synonyms for the following words.

1. secondary 2. application 3. on the contrary 4. changeable 5. to demand (l. 1) ……………………… (l. 11) ……………………… (l. 12) ……………………… (l. 13) ……………………… (l. 28) ………………………

Now refer back to the text and find antonyms for the following words.

6. neither … nor 7. general-purpose 8. often 9. late 10. small (l. 9) ……………………… (l. 16) ……………………… (l. 16) ……………………… (l. 21) ……………………… (l. 24) ………………………

XI. Word forms
Choose the appropriate word to complete the sentences. Make sure to use the correct form.

1. repetition, repeat, repetitive, repeatedly, repeating

a. There are some people who … to arrive late to class whenever they are working on a program because they forget the time.

b. A computer can do … operations without getting tired or bored.

c. …, which can be a boring and unproductive task has been eliminated with the use of computers.

d. A computer can … the same operation over and over again accurately without becoming bored or tired.

 

2. alteration, alter, altered

a. When a program doesn’t work properly, it is often necessary to make … to it.

b. The omission of data from a program can … its results.

c. The use of the computer in business has … the workload of many people.

 

3. basis, base, based, basic

a. The binary system is … on two digits: 0 and 1.

b. The decimal system uses 10 as a … whereas the hexadecimal system uses 16.

c. Data … management involves structuring and organizing data so as to make them useful and available to more than one particular user.

d. Flowcharting is a … step in programming.

 

4. instruction, instruct, instructed, instructor

a. Our math … explained to us the principles of binary arithmetic.

b. We were … to document our programs very carefully.

c. Both … and data have to be changed to machine code before the computer can operate on them.

XII. Content review
Complete the following statements with appropriate words from the box. (Some can be used more than once.) Make sure you use the correct form, i.e. singular or plural.

drawback multimedia magnetic storage optical disk
information retrieval capacity magnetic head 4.72-inch
optical storage mold application memory capacity
recording characteristic    

 

… provides greater … than … because laser beams can be controlled and focused much more precisely than can tiny … . An entire set of encyclopedias can be stored on a standard 12-centimeter (…) optical disk. … are also inexpensive to make: the plastic disks are simply … pressed from a master, as photograph records are.

The main … of optical equipment is a slower rate of … compared to conventional magnetic-storage media. Despite its slowness, its superior … and … make optical storage ideally suited to memory-intensive …: graphics, sound, video games, training programs, … encyclopedias.

XII. Translate paragraph 2 into Russian after checking the unknown words in the dictionary.

Unit 7
Types of Disks

Section A Presentations (continued)

B. On the spur of the moment

You have just two minutes to prepare before you give a talk on one of these topics:

· how good presentations can benefit your company

· how speakers should prepare before giving presentations

· the qualities of a good speaker

· how a speaker can keep the attention of the audience

· the effective use of visual aids in presentations

 

C. A prepared presentation

Prepare and make a presentation on a topic of your own choice. For example:

· your company

· your products

· a project you have been involved in recently

· new developments in your field

Before you begin, decide:

· who you are talking to

· how many people there are

· who they are

· if it’s a formal or informal occasion

Write brief notes outlining the talk.

Company Presentation Notes
1. Who it was founded by …………………………………………... 2. Date it was founded ………………………………………………. 3. Nature of business ………………………………………………... 4. The type of customers it has ……………………………………… 5. Location(s) ………………………………………………………... 6. Number of employees ……………………………………………. 7. Annual turnover …………………………………………………... 8. Location of headquarters …………………………………………. 9. Group turnover …………………………………………………… 10. Number of group employees ……………………………………. 11. The company’s main strength …………………………………... 12. The company’s future plans ……………………………………..

(to be continued)

 

 

Section B Language Focus. Perfect Tenses.
Revision of Tenses

I. Read the sentences and explain the use of Perfect Tenses. Translate the sentences into Russian:

1. Computers have changed the way in which we live.

2. He will have studied some high-level computer languages by next year.

3. By the 1960’s computers had become faster than their predecessors.

4. There are many different types of memory that have been used in computers.

II. Change the following sentences into interrogative and negative forms:

1. Computers have decreased man’s workload.

2. The students had discussed the news by the end of the lesson.

3. He will have finished the work at the term project by the end of November.

4. Today the Internet has entered everyone’s house.

III. Rewrite the sentences in Perfect Tenses using the appropriate adverbs:

1. Computers as we know them today are going through many changes.

2. Integrated circuitry will further change computers.

3. In 1969 the Intel Company pioneered in the development of semiconductor memory chips.

4. Computers change the way in which many kinds of jobs are done.

5. The demand for computer professionals steadily rises from year to year.

IV. Ask as many special questions as you can:

1. Dr. H. Aiken has created the first completely automatic digital computer, Mark I.

2. All the articles on biosensors had been translated by last Friday.

3. The next generation computers will have been produced by the end of 2015.

V. Read and translate the sentences, mind the use of the Perfect Continuous:

1. The printer has been operating for an hour.

2. The demand for computer professionals has been steadily rising.

3. Will she have been writing the report since early morning tomorrow?

4. They have not been producing any information for a few days.

5. She hadn’t been translating an English article for half an hour when she was brought the dictionary.

6. He had been studying the computer keyboard for an hour when the telephone rang.

VI. Choose the correct tense form. Mind the voice of the predicate:

1. It goes without saying that computers (to create) whole new areas of work …

2. In the mid 1940’s the first digital computer (to build).

3. A hybrid computer (to compile) some properties of digital and analog computers.

4. They (to test) the new system for a week?

5. When I called my friend he (to compile) a program.

6. By the 1960’s semiconductors (to replace) vacuum tubes.

7. Microcomputers (to become) the most commonly used type of computers.

8. He (to give) a lecture on information science at 10 o’clock tomorrow.

9. You (to pass) the exam on integrated circuits by 12 o’clock tomorrow?

10. The main memory (to hold) the instructions and data which (to process currently) by the CPU.

11. They (to study) operational systems next term?

12. They (to discuss) different types of printers at 3 o’clock seminar yesterday.

13. She (to read) for her exam on computer languages for 4 hours.

14. It (to forecast), by the end of this decade exceptionally faster and smaller computers (to replace) those in use today.

15. This famous scientist (not to begin) his research in the second half of the 17th century.

VII. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Как долго профессор читает лекцию? – Он читает лекцию уже два часа.

2. Что ты будешь делать завтра в 10 часов утра? – Я буду работать над курсовой по операционным системам.

3. Когда вы пришли, компьютер уже загрузил программу.

4. Б. Паскаль построил вычислительную машину в 1642 году в возрасте 19 лет.

5. Персональный компьютер помогает выполнять сложные вычисления, создает большие банки данных, обучает студентов по многим предметам.

6. К 12 часам я сдам экзамен по информатике и буду свободен.

7. Компьютер прекращает работу, если в программе есть ошибка.

8. Что ты читал, когда я видел тебя вчера в читальном зале? – Я готовился к экзамену по языкам программирования.

Section C Reading

I. What purpose are CD-ROMs mainly used for? Look through paragraph 1 to prove your idea.

II. Skim paragraph 2 and describe how the process of writing is performed in magneto-optical disks.

III. Study the following words and word combinations and make sure you know their translations. Use a specialized dictionary in case of any difficulties.

CD-ROM (compact disk read-only memory)

stamping machine

to track

pit

photocell

reference work

multimedia format

WORM (write-once read-many)

laser beam

IV. Give the translation of the following abbreviations and translate them into Russian.

ROM, SRAM, VSLI, EAROM, RAM, ALU, DRAM, EPROM

V. State the type of word-building of the following words and translate them into Russian.

rewritten, digitally, rewritable, relatively, combination, impossible, magnetization

VI. Read the text attentively and name the differences between optical and magneto-optical disks.

5 10 15 20 In one type of optical disk, the CD-ROM (compact disc read-only memory), digital data is stored as a pattern of tiny pits on a compact disc by the heat of a high-power laser beam or by a stamping machine. Once the information is stored, it can be read but cannot be rewritten. For reading, the digitally coded data are tracked by a low-power optical laser scanner; variations in the intensity of laser light reflected from the pits are detected by a photocell that converts them into electric signals. Because they are not rewritable, CD-ROMs are used to distribute relatively static data, for example in encyclopedias and other reference works, and their large capacity makes them ideal for combinations of text with audio and graphics or other multimedia formats. WORM (write-once read-many) is a variation of CD-ROM that allows a user to write information on each disk only once, with subsequent erasure impossible. In magneto-optical disks, which can be erased and rewritten, information is written into or read from the disk by means of the magnetic properties of spots on its surface. In reading, spots with different directions of magnetization give different polarization in the reflected light of a low-power laser beam. In the writing process, which erases all previous information, every spot on the disk is heated by a strong laser beam and is then cooled under a magnetic field. Thus every spot is magnetized in one direction; in other words, every spot stores 0. Then, reversing the direction of the magnetic field, only desired spots are magnetized in the opposite direction by a strong laser beam, storing 1.  

VII. Main idea
Which statement or statements best express the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices?

 1. All types of optical disks can only be read but cannot be rewritten.

 2. Both optical and magneto-optical disks use laser beams in their operating principles.

 3. CD-ROMs are used for keeping more or less static data.

VIII. Understanding the passage
Decide whether the following statements are true or false (T/F) by referring to the information in the text. Then make the necessary changes so that the false statements become true.

T F

                                        1. Magnetic properties of magneto-optical disks determine the operating principles of writing and reading. 2. The information stored on an optical disk can be both read and rewritten. 3. The storage capacity of optical disks isn’t large enough to store multimedia data. 4. Adding data to a magnetic-optical disk doesn’t mean the erasure of the previous information. 5. A photocell is used to convert digitally coded data into electric signals. 6. Digital data is stored on a CD by heat of a low-power laser beam. 7. In magneto-optical disks every sport is magnetized in two directions, storing 0 and 1 simultaneously.

IX. Locating information
Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed. Give the line reference.

…… 1. CD-ROMs are employed for storing unchangeable information.

…… 2. Coded data are read by means of a special scanner and a photocell.

…… 3. A strong laser beam uses the magnetic phenomena for writing information on a magneto-optical disk.

…… 4. Stamping machine is one of the variants of storing data on compact disks.

…… 5. Magnetic field polarizes sports in magneto-optical disks storing information in the form of binary digits.

X. Contextual reference
Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to.

1. … that converts them into… 2. … because they are not rewritable… 3. … their large capacity makes them ideal… 4. … a variation of CD-ROM that allows… 5. … of spots on its surface… (l. 7) ……………………… (l. 8) ……………………… (l. 10) ………………………   (l. 12) ………………………   (l. 16) ………………………

XI. Understanding words
Refer back to the text and find synonyms for the following words.

1. very small 2. to transform 3. for instance 4. to permit 5. characteristics (l. 2) ……………………… (l. 7) ……………………… (l. 9) ……………………… (l. 12) ……………………… (l. 16) ………………………

Now refer back to the text and find antonyms for the following words.

6. low-power 7. dynamic 8. previous 9. following 10. to heat (l. 3) ……………………… (l. 9) ……………………… (l. 13) ……………………… (l. 19) ……………………… (l. 20) ………………………

XII. Word forms
Choose the appropriate word to complete the sentences. Make sure to use the correct form.

1. coordination, coordinate, coordinated, coordinating, coordinator

a. The control unit of a processor … the flow of information between the arithmetic unit and the memory.

b. … the many activities in a computer department is the job of the department head.

c. The … of a language institute has assistants to help him and may have access to a computer to help him with the … of many programs, timetables, space and students results.

 

1. interchange, interchangeable, interchangeably, interchanged

a. The words ‘arithmetic-logic’ and ‘arithmetic-logical’ can be used ….

b. There is often an … of ideas among computer scientists.

c. There is a big difference between an input and an output. These cannot be … .

 

2. sequence, sequential, sequentially

a. The control unit of the CPU directs the … operations of the system.

b. Data must be presented … to the processor unless the computer is programmed otherwise.

c. A program must be a detailed account of the … the processor must follow to solve the problem.

 

3. execution, execute, executed, executor, executing

a. A load module which is the result of system routines linked with an object module is directly … by the computer.

b. The time necessary for … a program, is usually indicated on the computer printout.

c. An … program consists of complex routines which are stored in the memory in order to supervise and control certain functions of the computer.

XIII. Content review
Match the following words in column A with the statements in
column B.

  A B
1. pattern a. drawing or images to represent objects
2. beam b. a thing that is an example to copy
3. laser c. the thing that something owns
4. graphics d. a line of light, energy that you can’t see
5. pit e. a small mark in the surface of something
  6. encyclopedia 7. property f. equipment that produces a powerful beam of light
    g. a book containing facts about many different subjects

b. Complete the following statements with appropriate words from the box. (Some can be used more than once.) Make sure you use the correct form, i.e. singular or plural.

electric signal laser beam storage storage medium
digital data CD-ROM pit  
surface compact disk laser scanner  

 

Optical … is an electronic … that uses low-power … to record and rewrite … . In optical storage technology a … encodes … onto an optical, or laser, disk in the form of tiny … arranged in concentric tracks on the disk’s … . A low-power … is used to ‘read’ these …, with variations in the intensity of reflected light from the pits of being converted into … . This technology is used in the … which records sound; in the … which can store text and images as well as sound; in WORM and in newer disks that are totally rewritable.

XIV. Using a dictionary translate paragraph 2 into Russian.

 

Unit 8
The Internet. E-mail

Section A. Presentations (continued)

D. Go back over your presentation and think of the questions members of the audience could ask. Ask the questions, and then answer them.

Pinpointing the reference   Asking for clarification
Ø You mentioned … Ø Could I go back to the point you made about …? Ø I was interested in your comments on … Ø You said that …   Ø Could you say a little more about that? Ø Could you expand on that? Ø Could you clarify what you said about …? Ø I’m still a bit confused about …

E. A visitor to you company

Someone is coming to see you at your place of work. You are responsible for his / her visit. Decide who the visitor is (e.g. client, supplier).

Before they come:

1. Work out which system, processes, products, etc the visitor will be most interested in. Decide who they should meet and what parts of the building / factory / site they should see. (Also what they can’t see!)

2. Work out an *itinerary for the visit. You might like to draw a plan or map showing where you are going to go.

 

*An itinerary is a plan for a visit with times, places and people to see.

 

When they come:

3. Meet the visitor, greet them and explain their itinerary to them.

4. Show them round. When appropriate give short presentations on the company history, the company structure, the factory and offices, machinery and equipment, processes, etc. introduce the visitors to other personnel.

5. Answer any questions that arise.

6. Say goodbye to your visitor.

 

 

Section B Language Focus. Sentence Structure.
Compound and Complex Sentences

I. Analyze the following simple sentences. Explain how to find the predicate:

1. The term “fourth-generation” (fourth-generation language) places the language in the context of the history of programming.

2. A computer can solve a series of problems and make hundreds, even thousands, of logical decisions without becoming tired or bored.

3. The information necessary for solving problems is found in the memory of the computer.

4. The new microcomputer does not have a Fortran compiler.

5. The term “computer” usually refers to those parts of the hardware …

6. In 1971, Intel corp. delivered the first microprocessor.

7. They usually fill a whole room and are sometimes referred to as mainframes or computer installations.

II. Distinguish between compound and complex sentences. Comment on the way they are joined:

1. Another important advancement in computers came in 1947, when John von Neuman developed the idea of keeping instructions for the computer inside the computer’s memory.

2. In 1960, the second generation of computers was developed and these could perform work ten times faster than their predecessors.

3. Fourth-generation computers have now arrived, and the integrated circuits have been greatly reduced in size.

4. More powerful microcomputers are gradually being produced; therefore they are becoming the most commonly used type of computers.

5. A computer can do very little until it is given some information.

6. After the processor has operated on the information, the output devices display the results of the computations on a printer or a terminal.

7. Computers vary greatly in their internal organization, but every digital computer has a processor, memory, an input device to receive information, and output device to transmit information.

8. As the demand grew the number of factories able to produce computers also grew.

III. Read the sentences. Define the kind of subordinate clauses. Translate the sentences into Russian:

1. Since people prefer to use words, a new type of the language based on the machine code was developed.

2. A computer is a general purpose machine which represents and processes information.

3. Each problem must be clearly defined before the programming function can be performed.

4. If the program has no errors the central unit begins to execute instructions.

5. We have discussed how the computer can produce letters and drawings as its output.

6. What is interesting to know is that artificial intelligence is machine intelligence.

7. That the first digital computer appeared in 1944 is well-known to everybody.

8. One advantage of this procedure is that the programmer is immediately informed of any syntax error.

9. Scientists study all these problems to find a way out because computer technology has a great potential for more progressive transformation of out society.

10.It is known that the constituent parts of a computer are called hardware.

IV. Insert and, but, as, since, because, that, which:

1. Internal memory is a term for primary memory … its location is within the computer.

2. Secondary memory is called external memory … it usually consists of recording devices … are outside the computer.

3. In 1960 the second generation of computers was developed … these could perform work ten times faster than their predecessors.

4. The digital computer gets its name … the data … are presented to it are made up of a code consisting of digits.

5. ROM stands for “Read Only Memory”, … implies … the processor can read and use the information stored in the ROM chip … it cannot put information into it.

Section C Reading

I. What are the main purposes you use the Internet for? Look through paragraph 2 and name the general purposes of the Internet.

II. Skim paragraph 4 and name what possibilities e-mail offers to its users.

III. Do you have your own e-mail address? Give it to your groupmates keeping in mind that ‘@’ is pronounced as ‘at’ and ‘.’ as ‘dot. For example, joe.smith@bbc.co.uk would be read as “joe ‘dot’ smith ‘at’ bbc ‘dot’ co ‘dot’ uk”.

IV. Study the following words and word combinations and make sure you know their translations. Use a specialized dictionary in case of any difficulties.

system architecture

network

wireless access

constituent network

newsgroup

to transmit a message

recipient

to forward

V. State the type of word-building of the following words and translate them into Russian.

revolutionized, interconnection, visible, capability, accessible, collaboratively, communication, employee

VI. Read the text attentively and tell what prospects the Internet and e-mail have.

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 The Internet is a system architecture that has revolutionized communications and methods of commerce by allowing various computer networks around the world to interconnect. Sometimes referred to as a “network of networks,” the Internet emerged in the United States in the 1970s but did not become visible to the general public until the early 1990s. By the beginning of the 21st century approximately 360 million people, or roughly 6 percent of the world's population, were estimated to have access to the Internet. It is widely assumed that at least half of the world's population will have some form of Internet access by 2010 and that wireless access will play a growing role. The Internet provides a capability so powerful and general that it can be used for almost any purpose that depends on information, and it is accessible by every individual who connects to one of its constituent networks. It supports human communication via electronic mail (e-mail), “chat rooms,” newsgroups, and audio and video transmission and allows people to work collaboratively at many different locations. It supports access to digital information by many applications, including the World Wide Web. E-mail is in full electronic mail messages transmitted and received by digital computers through a network. An e-mail system allows computer users on a network to send text, graphics, and sometimes sounds and animated images to other users. On most networks, data can be simultaneously sent to a universe of users or to a select group or individual. Network users typically have an electronic mailbox that receives, stores, and manages their correspondence. Recipients can elect to view, print, save, edit, answer, forward, or otherwise react to communications. Many e-mail systems have advanced features that alert users to incoming messages or permit them to employ special privacy features. Large corporations and institutions use e-mail systems as an important communication link between employees and other people allowed on their networks.

VII. Main idea
Which statement or statements best express the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices?

 1. The Internet can be considered as a new medium for personal communication.

 2. The Internet is suitable practically for any information purpose.

 3. E-mail has practically replaced the traditional letter writing.

VIII. Understanding the passage
Decide whether the following statements are true or false (T/F) by referring to the information in the text. Then make the necessary changes so that the false statements become true.

T F

                              1. An electronic mailbox can get, save and manage the incoming messages. 2. An e-mail gives only a possibility to send text documents to other users. 3. The Internet appeared in the United States in the early 1990s and became at once popular. 4. The Internet connects personal computers within a very limited area. 5. The Internet is a powerful means of information interchange. 6. Data can only be sent to one individual user at one time. 7. The Internet doesn’t require any special means for information access.

IX. Locating information
Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed. Give the line reference.

…… 1. Computer users can send various forms of information by e-mail.

…… 2. The Internet has become very popular since its appearance.

…… 3. The Internet provides means for human communication via a number of applications.

…… 4. Quite a number of operations can be done to transmitted and received electronic messages.

…… 5. The Internet is a world-wide network of computers.

…… 6. Anyone can join the Internet.

X. Contextual reference
Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface
refer to.

1. … it can be used… 2. … of its constituent networks… 3. … it supports access to… 4. … and manages their correspondence… 5. … permit them to employ… 6. … allowed on their networks… (l. 16) ……………………… (l. 19) ……………………… (l. 25) ……………………… (l. 34) ………………………   (l. 38) ……………………… (l. 40) ……………………….

XI. Understanding words
Refer back to the text and find synonyms for the following words.

1. different 2. approximately 3. at one time 4. to choose 5. messages (l. 3) ……………………… (l. 11) ……………………… (l. 32) ……………………… (l. 35) ……………………… (l. 36) ………………………

 

Now refer back to the text and find antonyms for the following words.

6. to disappear 7. excluding 8. in abbreviated form 9. analog 10. to transmit (l. 6) ……………………… (l. 27) ……………………… (l. 28) ……………………… (l. 29) ……………………… (l. 36) ………………………

XII. Word forms
Choose the appropriate word to complete the sentences. Make sure to use the correct form.

1. acceptance, accept, accepted, acceptable, acceptably

a. A computer is a device which … processes and gives out information.

b. The students are still waiting for their … into the Computer Science program.

c. It is … to know without a template if the flowcharts are not kept on file.

2. communication, communicate, communicable, communicative

a. A computer must be able to … to user.

b. Fiber optics is a widely used development in the field of … .

c. Some people working in computer installations aren’t very … because they are shy.

3. imagination, imagine, imaginable, imaginative, imaginary

a. A computer is limited in its ability by the … of man.

b. Some people are good at inventing … stories.

c. It is practically impossible to … the speed at which a computer calculates numbers.

4. permission, permit, permissible, permitted

a. It is usually not … to smoke in a computer installation.

b. Computers … people to use their time more effectively.

c. Building … is usually required before starting any renovations to a building for a computer department.

 

XIII. Content review
Complete the following statements with appropriate words from the box. (Some can be used more than once.) Make sure you use the correct form, i.e. singular or plural.

message e-mail access network WWW
discussion newsgroup service discussion group  
via the Internet information telephone line  

1. … is a worldwide … of computers all linked together … telephone lines. … is about people talking and sharing … . You can do any number of things when you have … to …, such as send and receive …, join … and look at pages on something called the … .

2. … is … version of the postal … . Instead of putting a letter into a postbox you send a … from your computer down a … . You can send … to other people who also have … to … .

3. … include the chat forums where you can log in and leave remarks, ask questions and have ‘live’ … . There are groups that cover every interest under the sun.

XIV. Using your dictionary translate paragraphs 2 and 4 into Russian.

Unit 9
World Wide Web

Section A Presenting information: use of signals

A. The graph below shows the changes in consumer prices in five major countries between 1988 and 1991. Read the text of a presentation about this graph and notice the use of signals.

    Notes
Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. Today, I’m going to talk about changes in consumer prices. In Britain, the United States, France, Germany and Japan during the period 1988 to 1991.   Introduces presentation.
First of all, let’s look at a county whose price inflation was higher than anyone else’s during this period.   Refers to Britain.
As you can see from the graph, price inflation in Britain stood at around 5% in 1988, rising to almost 10% in 1990, before falling back to 4% in 1991.   Refers to visual.
Now, if we turn to another large trading country, Japan, we can see that the situation is different. Price inflation in Japan was as low as 1% in 1988, and even though it subsequently rose, it was always well below 4%.   Changes topic to Japan.
Finally, let’s look at Germany, the only country experiencing a rise in inflation in 1991. This rise from around 2% in 1990 to over 3% in 1991 was largely due to the extra costs of re-unifying East and West Germany.   Changes topic to Germany.
In conclusion, we can observe that Britain had the highest rate of inflation of the five countries examined throughout this period, although the gap narrowed substantially in 1991.   Finishes.

B. You have just looked at some signals commonly heard in presentations. Look at the following signals and write them under the correct headings in the table below.

a. Finally … f. So, to conclude … k. In conclusion, we can say …
b. After that … g. I’m going to talk about … l. The next …
c. As you can see from the graph … h. First … m. The graph shows
d. Now turning to … i. The aim of this presentation is to …  
e. Now, let’s look at … j. What I’d like to talk about is …  
Introducing a subject Sequencing Referring to text / visuals Changing a topic Concluding
         

C. Use the graph above to give a short presentation on European consumer price changes in the five major countries between 1988 and 1991.

· Give a short introduction.

· Ask people to look at the figures for the United States.

· Change the topic to France.

Section B Language Focus. One(s). It. That (those)

I. Translate the sentences into Russian. Mind the emphatic construction with “it”:

1. It is a calculating machine that speeds up financial calculations.

2. It is the Central Processing Unit that executes programs and coordinates the activities of all the other units.

3. It was in 1820 that the first real calculating machine appeared.

4. It was Charles Babbage who in 1830 designed a machine that was called “The Analytic Engine”.

5. It was not until 1930 that the first analog computer was built.

6. It was not until the 19th century that a calculating machine was invented which tried to reduce manpower.

II. Translate the sentences. Mind the meaning of “it”:




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