When you read the following text remember to try and understand the meaning of new words and expressions from the context. Don't check new words in the dictionary until you have read the whole text. Most of the words in bold typeface are explained in the Glossary at the end of the book.
 Like all machines, a computer needs to be directed and controlled in 1
order to perform a task successfully. Until such time as a program is prepared and stored in the computer's memory, the computer 'knows' absolutely nothing, not even how to accept or reject data. Even the most sophisticated computer, no matter how capable it is, must be told what 5 to do. Until the capabilitiesand the limitationsof a computer are recognized, its usefulness cannot be thoroughly understood.
 In the first place, it should be recognized that computers are capable of doing repetitive operations. A computer can perform similar operations thousands of times, without becoming bored, tired, or even careless. 10
 Secondly, computers can process information at extremely rapid rates. For example, modern computers can solve certain classes of arithmetic problems millions of times faster than a skilled mathematician. Speeds for performing decision-makingoperations are comparable to those for arithmetic operations but input-output operations, however, involve 15
mechanical motion and hence require more time. On a typical computer system,cards are read at an average speed of 1000 cards per minute and as many as 1000 lines can be printed at the same rate.
[41 Thirdly, computers may be programmed to calculate answers to
whatever level of accuracy is specified by the programmer.In spite of 20 newspaper headlines such as 'Computer Fails', these machines are very accurate and reliable especially when the number of operations they can perform every second is considered. Because they are man-made machines, they sometimes malfunction or break down and have to be repaired. However, in most instances when the computer fails, it is due 25 to human error and is not the fault of the computer at all.
 In the fourth place, general-purpose computerscan be programmed to solve various types of problems because of their flexibility. One of the
most important reasons why computers are so widely used today is that almost every big problem can be solved by solving a number of little 30
problems - one after another.
 Finally, a computer, unlike a human being, has no intuition. A person may suddenly find the answer to a problem without working out too many of the details, but a computer can only proceed as it has been programmed to. 35
 Using the very limited capabilities possessed by all computers, the task of producing a university payroll, for instance, can be done quite easily. The following kinds of things need be done for each employee on the payroll. First: Input information about the employee such as wage rate, hours worked, tax rate, unemployment insurance, and pension 40
deductions. Second: Do some simple arithmetic and decision making operations. Third: Output a few printed lines on a cheque. By repeating this process over and over again, the payroll will eventually be completed.