Computers, as we know them today,haven't been around for a long time. It wasn't untilthe mid-1940s that the first working digital computer was completed. But since then,computers have evolved tremendously. Vacuum tubes were used in the first-generation computers only to be replaced by transistors in the second-generation computers at the beginningof the 1960s. By the endof the 1960s, transistors were replaced by tiny integrated circuit boards and, consequently, a new generation of computers was on the market. Fourth-generation computers are nowproduced with circuits that are much smaller than beforeand fit on a single chip. Soonfifth-generation computers will be produced, and these will no doubt be better than their predecessors.
1. Computers might be used in the future as simultaneoustranslating machines.
2. At present,computers are used for printing newspapers.
3. In the future, computers will probably replace most of our daily activities, but in the meantimescientists are still trying to develop computers to their full potential.
Subsequent to time-reference, i.e. after
afterwards after that eventually
since since then by the time
by the end soon next
1. Sincethe development of the chip, computers have become cheaper and more compact.
2. You should have a good basic understanding of computers by the timeyou finish this reading course.
3. After the development of transistors, the latercomputers were much faster.
N.B. Time sequence is also shown by the different verb tenses. Examples
1. Vannevar Bush had builtthe first analog computer long before Professor Aiken and some men at IBM inventedthe first digital computer.
2. At the rate computer technology is growing,computers, as we knowthem today, willsoon becomeobsolete.