Re-read paragraph 6 of 'Disks and Disk Drives' and, while reading, complete the following diagram 8
Reading texts often have connectives omitted without seriously affecting the flow of intelligibility. However, connectives dealing with contrastive elements within a sentence or paragraph are very rarely absent because without these, the reading passage would be nonsensical and confusing. There are many ways of showing that contrast exists between things.
1 The easiest indicator that a contrast exists and that also emphasizes that the opposite is true, is when a statement is introduced by one of the following markers:
on the contrary
on the one hand; ... on the
by way of contrast
1. The control unit transmits coordinating control signals and commands; on the other hand,the arithmetic-logical unit performs the arithmetic and logical operations called for in the instruction.
2. Magnetic tapes are cheap, but access to specified data may take time in comparisonwith disks, which are expensive and permit direct or almost direct-access to specified data.
3. A computer can solve a complex problem in seconds; by way of contrast,man would take weeks, maybe months, to do the same operations.
2 Sometimes contrastive connectives are used to indicate that what follows is a replacement of what was said before. Examples of such markers are:
an/the alternative is .. .*
It might be better if .. .*
* occurs in initial position
1. Second-generation computers worked faster than their predecessors because of the use of transistors insteadof vacuum tubes.
2. When a computer fails to produce the desired output, it is often due to human error rather thanthe fault of the computer itself.
3. A 'smaller' computer may take several steps to perform some given operation, whereasa 'larger' machine may accomplish the same thing with one instruction.
3 When the writer wants to express that what has been said before is true or correct, but what follows is, in contrast, also true or correct, the following connective markers are used:
in spite of
on the other hand
1. Computers have a means of communicating with the user. However,certain computers (commonly minicomputers and microcomputers) are used to control directly things such as robots and aircraft navigation systems.
2. A computer can replace people in dull, routine tasks, butit has no originality.
3. Computers have often been thought of as very large adding machines. Althougha computer can only respond to a certain number of instructions, it is not a single-purpose machine.