Understanding the different ways of expressing the relationship between the causes and the effects of an action is very important when you are reading English. If an argument begins with effects or results, the causes are the reasons that logically lead to those results. This cause-effect relationship is commonly used in academic texts.
There are many different ways of expressing cause and effect; before looking at some of these ways, note carefully this important distinction:
1 Often, the choice of verbs in a sentence will indicate a cause-effect relationship. The following verbs are used to link a cause with an effect:
be caused by
be produced by
result in result from
1. The idea of keeping instructions for the computer inside the
computer's memory brought aboutsignificant changes in computer technology. (A---------- ► B)
2. In a daisy wheel printer, the hammer hits a single letter, guaranteeing accurate positioning and uniform striking. This allows a fast, quiet, and reliable operation, with superb print quality.
(A-------- * B)
3. Dust and dirt causethe recording condition of disks to deteriorate. (A------- -> B)
2 Connectives used in specifying a cause can be any of the following:
as the/a result of
in response to
1. The first real calculating machines appeared in 1820 as the result ofseveral people's experiments. (B < A)
2. A computer is not a single-purpose machine, sinceinstructions can be combined in an infinite number of sequences. (B < A)
3. Becausethe printing element of line printers is so simple and has no moving parts, these printers are inexpensive and silent. (A * B)
3 Sentence connectors used in introducing a result are:
with the result that
for this reason
1. All disks are made of a substance coated with metal oxide and can thereforebe magnetized.
2. A punch card is organized into 12 rows and 80 columns. For this reason,the character is changed into a 12-bit word.
3. The memory of the first computers was made up of fine vertical and horizontal wire. Every intersection had its unique address; consequently,when an electrical current was passed through the wires, the cores were identified by their respective addresses.
4 Another way of showing causal relationship is by introducing the cause with IF, and both the cause clause and the effect clause verbs are in the present tense.
1. If the necessary information is locatedon secondary memory devices such as disks or tapes, programs and data arefirst loadedinto internal memory.
2. If a tape drive hasa transfer speed of 200 IPS, reading from a 6250 BPIdensity tape is like reading15,000 cards in one second.