Exercise 1. Read and translate the following text. Use a dictionary if necessary.
MEDICINES AND HEALTH
“Medicines are not meant to live on”, an English proverb says. There is no denying the fact; we can only add that good health is better than the best medicine. If your health is good, you are always in a good mood. You have “a sound mind in a sound body”, as an Old Latin saying goes. The English proverb "Sickness in the body brings sickness to the mind, expresses the similar idea, but from the different point of view. The profession of a doctor is one of the most noble, respected and needed in the world, as we turn to a doctor for advice at the hardest moments of our life, when we fall ill or suffer from pain or some disorder in our body and soul.
Taking medicine is an unpleasant thing of course, and if we want to avoid it, we should go in for sport and keep ourselves fit. Physical exercise can be a good pastime, and is necessary for keeping fit and being healthy. Physically inactive people catch a cold more often than those who do plenty of exercise. It is true that good health is better than the best medicine. If you do exercise, you feel refreshed, you have a good posture and that makes you feel better.
Certainly the progress of science is a wonderful thing, and I would like to speak about the achievements of medical science. A hundred years ago there was no medicine for diphtheria, measles, scarlet fever, whooping-cough and other infectious diseases. A lot of people suffered from pain and nobody could help them. But nowadays the situation has changed, and our medicine has succeeded in treating patients for contagious diseases. You can always go and see a doctor, and you are sure he will examine you and give some advice. And if you have to have an operation, he will send you to a hospital where they have all the necessary equipment.
If your teeth need attention, filling or extracting, or if you need false teeth, then you go to the dentist.
If your eyes need attention, you go to the oculist, who will examine them, test your sight to see whether you are suffering from short-sight or long-sight, and will write out a prescription, which you take to an optician, who will make the necessary glasses for you.
There is nothing more unpleasant than being ill. If you are running a temperature, have a splitting headache feel dizzy or cough you go and see a doctor or send for him at once. She or he will come and feel your pulse, take your temperature, listen to your heart, test your lungs, measure your blood pressure, etc. Certainly, he or she will prescribe some medicine which you can get made up at a chemist’s.
There are different types of medicines: pills, tablets, ointments, drops, mustard plasters and many other things.
My last illness was two years ago. It started unexpectedly. Early in the morning I woke up and felt dizzy and feverish. I had a splitting headache and a terrible cough. My nose was running, I was sneezing all the time. I could hardly recognize my own voice. Besides I was running a high temperature. When the doctor came, he asked me to strip to the waist, then sounded my lungs, felt my pulse, examined the throat. I had flu and, luckily, was not to be taken to hospital. The doctor wrote out a prescription and told me to stay in bed to avoid complications; I also had to drink plenty of warm tea and take pills and vitamins to boost my immune system. I followed the doctor’s instructions and in two weeks I fully recovered.
In conclusion I would like to give you some simple tips for staying healthy.
1. Take long walks in the open air as often as you can.
2. Keep your body clean.
3. Keep your teeth clean.
4. Wear clean clothes.
5. Sleep with your window open.
6. Have plenty of fruit and vegetables all the year round; as they say "An apple a day keeps the doctor away.”
Exercise 2. Fill in the missing words:
1. Medicines are not meant to live ___.
2. A sound ___ in a sound ___.
3. ___ in the body brings sickness to the ___.
4. Physical exercise can be a good ___, and is necessary for keeping ___ and being healthy.
5. It is ___ that good health is better than the best ___.
6. But ___the situation has changed, and our medicine has succeeded ___ treating patients ___ contagious diseases.
7. Certainly, he or she will prescribe some medicine which you can get made up ___ a chemist’s.
8. When the doctor came, he asked me to ___ to the waist, then ___ my lungs, ___ my pulse, examined the throat.
9. I also had to drink plenty ___ warm tea and take pills and vitamins to ___ my immune system.
10. An ___ a day keeps the doctor ___.
Exercise 3.Match the parts of the sentences:
The profession of a doctor is one of the most noble, respected and needed in the world,
and you are sure he will examine you and give some advice.
A hundred years ago there was no medicine for
who will make the necessary glasses for you.
If your teeth need attention, filling or extracting, or if you need false teeth,
you have a good posture and that makes you feel better.
You can always go and see a doctor,
and other infectious diseases.
He will write out a prescription, which you take to an optician,
and in two weeks I fully recovered.
The doctor wrote out a prescription and told
me to stay in bed to avoid complications
And if you have to have an operation, he will send you to a hospital where
diphtheria, measles, scarlet fever, whooping-cough and other infectious diseases.
I followed the doctor’s instructions
then you go to the dentist.
If you do exercise, you feel refreshed,
they have all the necessary equipment.
A hundred years ago there was no medicine for diphtheria, measles, scarlet fever, whooping-cough
as we turn to a doctor for advice at the hardest moments of our life, when we fall ill or suffer from pain or some disorder in our body and soul.
Exercise 4. Write five types of questions to the text and then your group-mates have to answer them.
Exercise 5. Retell the text.
NOTES ON SYNONYMS
Synonyms may differ by the degree or intensity of the phenomenon described or by certain additional implications conveyed by their meanings.
E.g. Malady describes a more dangerous illness than disease, sometimes a fatal one, whereas ailment mostly refers to a slight disorder. Malady implies a lasting, sometimes chronic illness, whereas ailment is short and temporary. Illness is the most general word in the group (the synonymic dominant).
severe (intense, violent) pain
to take blood test
to check blood pressure
to through necessary tests
to have a running nose
to examine a patient
Exercise 6. THESE WORDS ARE all used to talk about diseases: their symptoms and effects. Tick the ones you understand. Check the others in the dictionary.
1. A common illness, the symptoms of which include inflammation of the nasal passages, sneezing, coughing, a running nose and fever.
2. A common infectious viral disease of children, with mild fever, swollen lymph nodes and a rash. It can cause stillbirth or malformation of the unborn baby if it is caught by a mother while she is pregnant.
3. An illness, usually started by a viral infection, whose symptoms include inflammation of the nasal passages, sneezing, coughing, and a running nose. At present there is no cure for it.
4. An infectious disease of children, caused by a herpes virus, and characterised by fever and red spots which turn to itchy blisters.
5. An infectious disease of children where the body is covered with a red rash. It can weaken the body's resistance to other disease, for example bronchitis and ear infections. If caught by an adult it can be very serious.
6. An infectious disease of children, with fever and swellings in the salivary glands, caused by a paramyxovirus.
7. An infectious disease affecting the bronchial tubes. The patient suffers from a severe cough and makes a loud noise when inhaling after a coughing fit.
8. An inflammation in the nose and eyes caused by a reaction to flowers, their pollen and scent.
Exercise 7. Read the following text. Five sentences have been removed from the text. Fill in gaps 1 – 5 with the missing sentences from A – F. There is one extra sentence that will not fill any gap.
admit smb to a hospital
bowels (syn. intestine)
case (syn. patient)
to fill in (syn. record) a case history
заповнювати історію хвороби
emergency department(syn. reception ward)
medical (therapeutics) department
to make a diagnosis
to give enema
examination (syn. checkup)
feel (~bad, ~well)
почуватися (погано, добре)
inmate (syn. in-patient)
inspection (syn. external examination)
медсестра, мед брат
to feel the pulse
purgative (syn. laxative)
treatment (syn. management)
виразка дванадцятипалої кишки
urinalysis (syn. urine lest)
(The text is told on behalf of a medical student)
Inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation — the unalterable, ever-applicable tetrad. __1__. You look first, then feel; when you have felt you may tap, but not before; and last of all comes the stethoscope.
They taught us to feel lumps, livers and spleens; how to percuss correctly and understand the evasive murmurs transmitted through a stethoscope. __2__.
1 began to see how the ward was managed by Sister whom I avoided like a pile of radium. Every bodily function that could be measured — the pulse, the amount of urine, the quantity of vomit, the number of baths — was carefully written down against the patient's name in the treatment book, which reduced the twenty or so humans in the ward to a daily row of figures in her aggressive handwriting.
__3__. One was temperature. The temperature charts shone neatly from the foot of the beds, and each showed a precise horizontal zigzag of different amplitude. The temperatures were taken by the junior nurses, who used four or five thermometers. However, the figures were looked upon as unimportant, because Sister always substituted figures of her own if the ones of the patient did not fit with her idea of what the temperature of the case ought to be.
The other particular concern of the Sister was the patient's bowels. __4__. The number of occasions was written in a separate square at the foot of the temperature chart. A nought was regarded by Sister as unpleasant, and more than two blank days she took as a personal insult. Treatment was simple. One nought was allowed to pass without punishment, but two automatically meant purgative, three — castor oil and four — the supreme penalty of an enema.
We rapidly became accustomed to our position of inferiority to everyone of the ward staff. We did all the medical chars — urine testing, gruel meals in patients with duodenal ulcers, blood samples and a few simple investigations. __5__. It was only at the end of the third month that I realized how ignorant I was.
From Doctor in the House by R. Gordon
A. There were two functions of the physiology in which Sister took special interest.
B. For the first few weeks everything seemed easy.
C. All of us wanted to avoid complications.
D. Whatever part of the patient you examine, whatever disease you suspect, the four motions must be gone through in that order.
E. A nurse was sent round the ward every evening with a special book to ask how many times each inmate had performed during the past 24 hours.
F. Diagnosis is simple observation and application of logic in practice.
1. Sister — старша медична сестра
2. to perform — тут. мати стул
3. chars — «черна» робота
4. gruel meals — рідка вівсяна каша
Exercise 8. Find the words in the text that match the following definitions:
the sound of something being said quietly.
to broadcast something, or to send out signals using radio, television, etc.
to make something less.
to use someone or something instead of another person or thing.
drawing which shows information in a simple way, often using lines and curves to show amounts.
a rude and offensive remark or action.
when something is not as good as another thing, or when someone feels they are not as good as other people.
the number 0, nothing.
when officials try to discover all the facts about something, especially a crime or an accident.
not having enough knowledge, understanding, or information about something.
Exercise 9. Write 10 questions to the text covering the main points.
Exercise 10. Study the following words and their definitions. Use a bilingual dictionary if necessary. Then fill in the sentences with the missing words from the boxes (part A) and translate the sentences into Ukrainian (Part B) .
Word part of speech
not normal for the human body
pain that won't go away
quick to become severe/bad
allergy noun allergic adj
a body's abnormal reaction to certain foods or environmental substances (e.g. causes a rash)
emergency vehicle that rushes people to a hospital
a condition that causes people to lose their memory
amputation noun amputate verb
permanent removal of a limb
anaemia noun anaemic adj
occurs when the body doesn't have enough red blood cells
medication that kills bacteria and cures infections
medication that helps relieve anxiety and sadness
a scheduled meeting with a medical professional
a disease that causes the joints to become swollen and crippled
asthma (attack) noun
a condition that causes a blockage of the airway and makes it difficult for a person to breathe
a disease-causing organism
wounds that develop on a patient's body from lying in one place for too long
not harmful (not cancerous)
removal of human tissue in order to conduct certain medical tests
blood count noun
the amount of red and white blood cells a person has
blood donor noun
a person who gives blood to a blood bank or other person
blood pressure noun
the rate at which blood flows through the body (high/low)
a device that holds injured body parts in place
position of an unborn baby in which the feet are down and the head is up
a bone that is divided in two or more pieces as a result of an injury
bruise noun bruised adj
injured body tissue that is visible underneath the skin
Caesarean section, C-section noun
procedure that involves removing a baby from its mother through an incision in the woman's lower abdomen
disease caused by the uncontrollable growth of cells
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) noun
restoring a person's breath and circulation
a hard bandage that is wrapped around a broken bone to keep it in place
chapel, chapeline noun
a place where loved ones can go to pray for a patient's recovery; a priest who visits patients in the hospital
type of treatment used on cancer patients
a virus commonly contracted by children, characterized by itchy spots all over the body
a person who determines the cause of death after a person dies
critical condition noun
requiring immediate and constant medical attention
objects that people with injured legs or feet use to help them walk
a sac in the body-tissue filled with fluid (sometimes diseased)
unable to hear
a lack of something necessary for one's health
in need of water
loss of mental capacity
type of disease typically involving insulin deficiency
medical explanation of an illness or condition
a medical disorder that is harmful to a person's health
when a bone is temporarily separated from its joint
a medical problem that needs immediate attention
ER (emergency room) noun
the hospital room used for treating patients with immediate and life-threatening injuries
on the outside
false negative noun adj
a test that incorrectly comes back negative
family history noun
medical background of a person's family members
fevernoun feverish adj
higher than normal body temperature
flu (influenza) noun
many types of respiratory or intestinal infections passed on through a virus
fracture noun fracturedadj
broken or cracked bone
a micro-organism, especially one that causes disease
a medical condition or physical feature that is passed on in the family
a ball of tissue that grows bigger than normal, either on or under the skin
heart attack noun
instance in which blood stops pumping through the heart
the virus that infects the human T-cells and leads to AIDS
bumps that appear on the surface of the skin during an allergic reaction
illness noun ill adj
general term for any condition that makes a person feel sick for a certain period of time
immune system noun
the parts of the body that fight diseases, infections, and viruses
immunization noun immunize verb
an injection that protects against a specific disease
cut in the body made during surgery
infection noun infected adj
diseased area of the body (viral or bacterial)
appearance (red and swollen) of an injured body part
damage to the body
intensive care unit (ICU) noun
section of the hospital where patients get constant attention and doctors rely on specialized equipment
under the skin, inside the organs
feeling discomfort on the skin's surface
a tube that pumps liquids and medication into a patient's body
lab results noun
tests that come back from a laboratory and help doctors make a diagnosis
lab (laboratory) noun
place where samples of blood/urine etc. are taken for testing
life support noun
a machine that keeps patients alive by helping them breathe
when injuries and conditions are extremely serious
feeling of dizziness and being off-balance, caused by lack of oxygen in the brain
expected to grow and get much worse (especially related to cancerous cells)
medical school (med. school)noun
place where someone trains to be a doctor
an infant that is less than three months old
no feeling in a certain body part
OR (operating room) noun
the place where major surgeries and operations take place
operation noun operate on verb
a medical procedure that involves going inside a person's body in an attempt to fix a problem
strong discomfort in certain areas of the body
pain killer, pain reliever noun
type of medicine that takes away some or all of the discomfort of an illness or injury
unable to move certain areas of the body
a person staying in a hospital or medical facility
a person who fills a doctor's prescription and gives people advice about medication
pharmacy, drugstore noun
a place where people go to buy medication and other medical supplies
poison noun poisonous adj
a substance that is very dangerous if it enters the human body
of the time period leading up to giving birth
prescription noun prescribe verb
the correct amount and type of medication needed to cure an illness or relieve symptoms
privacy noun private adj
personal (e.g. test results)
high energy X-rays that destroy cancer cells
residency resident noun
part of a doctor's training that takes place in the hospital; a student working under a doctor
routine check-up noun
a doctor's appointment to check a person's general health
plain uniform (usually green, white, or blue) worn by medical professionals
scrub up verb
carefully wash hands before and after seeing a patient
second opinion noun
input from a second doctor about an illness or symptom
sudden violent movements or unconsciousness caused by electrical signal malfunction in the brain
body not getting enough blood flow
side effects noun
other symptoms that might occur as a result of a certain medication or procedure
the uncontrollable tightening of a muscle
a doctor that is an expert in a certain kind of medicine
an injury (less serious than a break) to a joint (ankle, wrist, knee etc)
stable condition noun
a patient is stable if their medical condition is no longer changing rapidly
sharp, temporary pain
stress noun stressed adj
worry that causes muscles to tighten and blood pressure to rise
swelling noun swollen adj
ligaments (parts that hold the joints together) growing bigger and rounder after an injury to a joint
pain or physical changes that occur because of an illness or disease
amount of heat measured in a body; higher than normal temperature
painful when touched or used
test results noun
medical information that helps doctors understand a patient's condition or body
treatment aimed at improving a person's mental or physical condition
moving of an organ from one human to another
a test that examines the body's internal organs and processes using sound waves (often used during pregnancies)
umbilical cord noun
the lifeline from the mother to the fetus (when cut at birth this forms the belly button)
alive, but appearing to be asleep and unaware of the surroundings
urine sample noun
a small amount of the body's liquid waste that is tested for different medical reasons
the thin tubes that transport blood around the body and back to the heart
a dangerous organism that causes the spread of minor and major diseases
visiting hours noun
time of day when friends and family are allowed to visit patients in hospital
discharge of a person stomach contents through the mouth
a section of a hospital or health facility where patients stay
a chair on wheels used for transporting patients from place to place
wound noun wounded adj
injury to body ("flesh wound" means not deep)
a photograph of a person's bones and organs
Part A: Fill in the gaps with the words from the boxes: