Skim through the text and find the explanation to the abbreviations given in the titles. Then read the text thoroughly and do the tasks given below.
By the mid-1970s, many government agencies were on the ARPA net, but each was running or network developed for their specific project. All were capable networks, but all spoke different languages. What was clearly needed to make things work smoothly was a set of networking protocols that would tie together disparate networks and enable them to communicate with each other. The solution was found in 1982.
TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol; IP is the abbreviation for Internet Protocol. With the advent of TCP/IP, the word Internet - which is a portmanteau word for interconnected networks - entered the language.
The TCP portion of the TCP/IP provides data transmission verification between client and server. If data is lost or scrambled, TCP triggers retransmission until the errors are corrected. Package of subroutines that provide access to TCP/IP protocols is called a socket.
The IP portion of TCP/IP moves data packets from node to node. It decodes addresses and rout data to designated destinations. The Internet Protocol (IP) is what creates the network networks, or Internet, by linking systems at different levels. It can be used by small computers communicate across a LAN (Local Area Network) in the same room or with computers networks around the world. Individual computers connected via a LAN (either Ethernet or token ring) share the LAN setup with both TCP/IP and other network protocols, such as Novell or Windows for Workgroups. One computer on the LAN then provides the TCP/IP connection to the outside world.
TCP/IP has been ported to most computer system including personal computers, and has become the new standard in internetworking. It is 1 protocol set that provides the infrastructure for the Internet today. TCP/IP comprises over 100 different protocols. It includes services for remote logon, file transfers, and data indexing and retrieval, among others.
One of the most widely used protocols is the Point to Point Protocol. PPP is a mechanism for creating and running IP and other network protocols over a serial link - be that a direct serial connection (using a null-modem cable), over a telnet established link, or a link made using modems and telephone lines (and of course using digital lines such as ISDN).
Using PPP, you can connect your PC to a PPP server and access the resources of the network to which the server is connected as if you were directly connected to that network. You can also set up your PC as a PPP server, so that other computers can dial into your computer and access the resources on your local PC and/or network. You can also use PPP on two PCs to link together two networks (or a local network to the Internet), creating a Wide Area Network (WAN).
One major difference between serial based PPP and an Ethernet connection is of course speed - a standard Ethernet connection operates at 10 Mbs (Mega - million bits per second) or 100 Mbs maximum theoretical throughput, whereas an analogue modem operates at speeds up to 56 kbps (kilo - thousand bits per second). Also, depending on the type of PPP connection, there may be some limitations in usage of some applications and services.
PPP is strictly a peer to peer protocol; there is (technically) no difference between the machine that dials in and the machine that is dialed into. However, for clarity's sake, it is useful to think in terms of servers and clients. When you dial into a site to establish a PPP connection, you are a client. The machine to which you connect is the server. When you are setting up a box to receive and handle dial-in PPP connections, you are setting up a PPP server. Any PC can be both a PPP server and client - even simultaneously if you have more than one serial port (and modem if necessary).
The machine that initiates the call (that dials in) as the CLIENT, whilst the machine that answers the telephone, checks the authentication of the dial in request (using user names, passwords and possibly other mechanisms) is referred to as the SERVER. The use of PPP as a client to link one or more machines at a location into the Internet is, probably, the one in which most people are interested.
3. Find the equivalents for the Russian words:
а) несовместимый, проверка целостности данных, перемешивать, приводить в действие, подпрограмма, подключаться, узел, назначение, поиск данных;
b) последовательное подсоединения, нуль-модемный кабель, система соединений типа точка-точка, полоса пропускания, входящее соединение, одновременно, последовательный порт, авторизация.
4.Portmanteau word – is a linguistic term naming the hybrid word made of two words, for example, motor + hotel = motel; breakfast + lunch = brunch. Such words are quite often used in technical language.Can you give your own examples?
5. Technical language is also characterized by frequent use of the noun + noun collocations, where the last word is translated into Russian as a noun and the first as an adjective.
Translate the following word combinations paying attention to nouns as attributes:
Light pulses, light wave communications system, transmission system, telecommunications network, glass fiber, voice signal, data signal, television signal, telephone conversation, telecommunications transmission, construction cost, underground duct, copper cable, signal regenerator, carrier system, device reliability, laser beam, laser beam wave, radio wave, radio wave speed.