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Find such examples in the text.

Find all the ing-forms in the texts and say whether it is a Gerund, a verbal noun, an adjective or a Participial.

8. Define the function of the ing-form in the following sentences and translate them:

1. The scientist working at this design is well known. 2. Carrying out the experiment he made use of some new instruments. 3. These new devices are replacing their older equivalents. 4. Speaking about the new method of work the engineer told us many interesting details. 5. Computers occupy one of the leading places among the greatest achieve­ments of modern engineering. 6. Being cooled water turns into ice. 7. The electric current passing through a wire will heat it. 8. Transistors contain no moving parts. 9. The scientist is carrying on an important research. 10. Developing the new method they achieved good results. 11. Having improved this device they could use it for many purposes. 12. This varying current is carried along a wire to a receiver. 13. Our power engineering develops much faster than that of the other developed countries, including the USA. 14. Having been discovered many years ago this metal found a wide application in industry only last year. 15. While being checked the processor showed good performance. 16. The man introducing this famous scientist is the dean of our faculty. 17. Cybernetics is gaining a growing importance.



9. Answer the following questions:

1. What determined the necessity of creating a set of networking protocols?

2. What is the role of the TCP portion of the TCP/IP protocol?

3. What is a socket?

4. What does the IP portion do?

5. What is a function of a LAN?

6. How many protocols does TCP/IP comprise?

7. What is the PPP used for?

8. In what way does it differ from the Ethernet connection?

9. How can you apply client server relations in the PPP?

10. Explain the term “peer-to-peer system”.

Supplementary reading



One of the driving forces behind the development of ARPAnet was the desire to affect researchers at various locations the ability to log on to remote computers and run programs, the time, there were very few computers in existence and only a handful of power supercomputers (though the supercomputers of the early 1970s were nowhere near as power as the desktop machines of today). Along with e-mail, remote logon was one of the very first capabilities built into the ARPAnet.

Today, there is less reason for logging on to a remote system and running programs there. Most major government agencies, colleges, and research facilities have their own computers, each of which is as powerful as the computers at other sites.

TCP/IP provides a remote logon capability through the Telnet protocol. Users generally log in to a UNIX shell account on the remote system using a text-based or graphics-based terminal program. With Telnet, the user can list and navigate through directories on the remote system and run programs.

The most popular programs run on shell accounts are probably e-mail programs, such as PINE; and text editors, such as Emacs. Students are the most common users of Telnet these days; professors, scientists, and administrators are more likely to have a more direct means of access to powerful computers, such as an X Windows terminal.

Most Web browsers don't include built-in Telnet capabilities. Telnet connections are usually established using a stand-alone terminal program. These programs can also be used by those who want Telnet capabilities on the Web by configuring them as browser helper applications.



The ability to transfer data between computers is central to the internetworking concept. TCP/IP implements computer-to-computer data transfers thorough FTP (File Transfer Protocol).

An FTP session involves first connecting to and signing on to an FTP server somewhere on the Net. Most public FTP sites allow anonymous FTP. This means you can sign in with the user name anonymous and use your e-mail address as your password. However, some sites are restricted and require the use of an assigned user name and password.

Once in, you can list the files available on the site and move around through the directory structure just as though you were on your own system. When you've found a file of interest, you can transfer it to your computer using the get command (or get for multiple files). You can also upload files to an FTP site using the put command.

Using Anonymous FTP to obtain freeware and shareware programs, electronic texts, and multimedia files remains one of the most popular activities on the Internet-so much so that FTP capabilities are now built into most Web browsers. When accessing an FTP site using a Web browser, the URL will be preceded by ftp:// rather than the http:// shown when you're viewing a Web site.

Individual files on an FTP site are handled according to the way they are defined in your browser's configuration setup, just as though you were browsing a Web site. For example, if you're exploring an FTP site and click the link for a .gif picture file, it will be displayed in the browser window. Text files and HTML encoded files will be displayed too. If you have configured helper applications for sound or video, clicking these types of files will display them using the configured helper applications. Clicking an unconfigured file type will generally bring up a requester asking you to configure a viewer or save the file to disk.

You might wonder, with hundreds of FTP sites on the Net and millions of files stored at those sites, how in the world can you ever hope to find the file you're looking for? Archie is the answer. Archie is a program for finding files stored on any anonymous FTP site on the Internet.

10. Discussion: Enumerate different Internet Protocols and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. The following expressions may be useful:

Discourse markers: Generalising


on the whole; in general; in all/most/many/some cases;

broadly speaking; by and large; to a great extent;

to some extent; apart from...; except for...


These expressions say how far the speaker/writer thinks a generalization is true.


Unit 4