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Read the text carefully and summarize the general ideas developed in this text.





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Rapid development of automation processes and the penetration of the computers in all fields of life have lead to appearance of a range of peculiar problems. One of these problems is the necessity of providing effective protection to information and means of its processing.

A lot of ways to access information, considerable quantity of qualified specialists, vast use of special technical equipment in social production make it possible for violators practically at any moment and in any place carry out the actions, which represent a threat to information safety.

Particular role in this process has been played by appearance of personal computer (PC), which has made computers, software and other informational technologies available to general public. Wide distribution of PC and impossibility of conducting effective control of their use have resulted in the decreasing security level of information systems.

The problem of information security is relatively new. Not all problems, connected with it have been figured out and solved up to now. The fact of great number of computer systems users means the definite risk to security because not all clients will carry out the requirements of its providing.

The order of storage mediums should be clearly defined in legal acts and envisage the complete safety of mediums, control over the work with information, responsibility for unsanctioned access to medium with a purpose of copying, changing or destroying them and so on.

There are some legal aspects of information protection, which can appear due to not carefully thought or ill-intentioned use of computer techniques:

o Legal questions of informational massifs form distortions;

o Security of stored information from the unsanctioned access;

o Setting juristically fixed rules and methods of copyrights protection and priorities of software producers;

o Development of measures for providing the juridical power to the documents, which are given to the machines;

o Legal protection of the experts’ interests, who pass their knowledge to the databases;

o Setting of legal norms and juridical responsibility for using electronic computer means in personal interests, which hurt other people and social interests and can harm them;

o The lack of appropriate registration and control, low level of work and production personnel discipline, the access of an unauthorized persons to the computing sources create conditions for abusing and cause difficulties to their detection. In every computing canter it is usual to set and strictly follow the regulations of the access to different official rooms for employees of any categories.

The main purpose of information protection is preventing from the leak, theft, distortion, counterfeit of information; preventing the threat to person’s life and social safety, protection of the constitution and so on. The information is subjected to protection, when it may cause the harm for its owner, user or other person.

The development of computer technology and its wide use have lead to appearance and spread of computer crimes. Such situation causes alarm among those organizations and legislative institution that use computer technologies and, of course, people, who use new informational services at home.

The term “computer crime” was first used in the early 70s. However, the discussions concerning it are still actual. The top question of these discussions is “What unlawful actions are implied by computer crime”.

A rank of definitions of the computer crime has been composed. It often refers to crimes directly or indirectly connected to electronic computing machines and which includes a number of illegal acts, committed by means of electronic data processing system or against it. Others consider that computer crime is any action, which goes together with interfering with property rights and fulfilled by means of computers. The thirds think that computer crime can be defined as all intentional and unlawful actions, which lead to causing harm to possessions, with help of computers too.

There are following forms of computers criminality: computer manipulations, economic espionage, sabotage, computer extortion, “hacker” activity. The main character of committing computer crimes in the business field becomes highly qualified “white collars” from the suffered organization’s employees.

According to the MIS Trading Institute (USA), they get 63% of all causes, examining crimes and abuses. More than 36% of law-committing employees are related to the personnel, which is not connected with computer servicing, 29% - qualified programmers, 25% - other workers of computing center. This tendency is reflected in official statistics too, according to which, about 40% of computer crimes are committed for solving of financial problems, 20% are motivated as an intellectual challenge to society, 17% - by the willing of solving personal problems, 8% - problems of corporation or organization, 4% - are directed for social admitting, 3% - for wounding somebody’s rights and so on.

There are many causes, when “hackers” get a job with a goal of personal enrichment. But the most danger can represent such specialists, who are in collusion with managers of commercial structures and organized criminal groups; in these situations causing damage and weight of consequences considerably increases.

 

There are two types of unsanctioned access:

· internal “breaking open” – the criminal has access to the terminal, with information he interested in and can work with it for some time without somebody’s control;

· external “breaking open” – the criminal doesn’t have indirect access to the computer system, but has an opportunity of penetration to the protected system by means of remote access;

 

Analysis of such actions shows that single crimes from own or neighbor work places gradually develop into network computer crimes, which are carried out by means of breaking of organizations’ protecting systems.

Therefore the importance of information protection cannot be doubted. However, not only companies and state institutions need information protection system but also general home users need information protection system and should maintain the security of their computers.

 

4. Find English equivalents to the following words:

Обеспечить надёжную защиту информации, угроза информационной безопасности, несанкционированный доступ, база данных, юридическая ответственность, противоправный акт, экономический шпионаж, взломщик.

 

5. Complete the sentences as in the text:

1.One of the most important problem for computer science is the providing ------

2. There are some legal ----- of computer protection.

3. Security of stored information from any unsanctioned ---

4. The main purpose of information protection is ----- from leak, theft, distortion of information.

5. Sometimes ----- get a job with a goal of personal enrichment.

6. Mark the true sentences (T) and the false ones (F), according to the text.

1 The importance of information protection can be doubted.

2 “Hackers” are not so dangerous as ‘crackers”.

3 Poverty of “hackers” is the main reason of their computer crimes.

4 The problem of information security is not so old.

5 Every organization should set protection system.

 

7. Translate into English paying attention to the infinitive.

1 Well – educated people in computer science are interesting to talk to. 2 The incident with the theft of information was too unpleasant to talk about. 3 The only that worries the engineer is to find the right solution of the problem of leaking information. 4 To err is human 5 He is clever enough to know the main reason of computer crime. 6 The hacker was the last to leave. 7 Engineers expect the problem “hacker” activity to be solved very soon. 8. The qualified programmers seem to have been very rich. 9. Ch.Cabbage is known to have invented the first computer. 10 It was not difficult for the students to understand the problem of information security.

 

8. Define the function of that (those) in the following sentences and translate them.

1 This system of information security is more efficient than that described in that journal. 2 Computers are devices that are capable of very rapid and accurate calculation. 3 We know that the term “computer crime” was first used in the early 70-s. 4 On that day the main character of committing computer crimes was found. 5 Some think that computer crimes can be defined as unlawful actions. 6 The information protection system was similar to that described previously. 7 There are computers that can do many jobs. 8 That Ch. Babbage invented the first computer is well known. 9 Since that time it represents a threat to information safety. 10 Different forms of computer criminality were found in their company similar to those used in Vidtec.

9. Answer the questions;

1What is the main problem of information protection?

2 When was the term “computer crime “ used?

3 What is security concerned with?

4 Why have computer crimes spread so quickly?

5 What is the difference between “hackers” and “crackers?

6 How can the main purpose of information protection be achieved?

7 What unlawful actions are implied by computer crimes?

8 What does statistics say about computer crimes?

9 Why are so many computer crimes committed?

10 Can you suggest the appropriate solution of the information protection?

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