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Askania Nova’s Botanical Garden





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Stonehange

Dear Taras,

I have read your information and want to give you a piece of advice. If you come to Britain to see the “Sea- henge” don’t lose the opportunity to a world heritage site: It’s Britain’s most famous prehistoric monument in Salisbury Plain, Southern England, which consists of two circles of large standing stones, one inside the other. You’ll be surprised to see that the inner circle consists of arches made by lay­ing one stone across the tops of two others. Some of these have fallen, but some are still in the position. {Nobody knows why and how it was built, but many people think it was to study the stars and planets or to worship the sun, because a line through its centre would point directly to the position of the rising sun on midsummer’s day or of the setting sun in midwinter. Many New Age travellers have been going there for their own midsummer celebra- tions!(Somehow or other it’s a unique place and it’s defi­nitely worth visiting. Go there and see for yourself. I’m sure you won’t regret it!

Askania Nova’s Botanical Garden

Dear Kate,

I envy you your trip. Askania No­va’s Botanical Garden is extremely beautiful. It has over 220 species of plants and trees, brought from all over the world. Besides, there are over 1000plants and grass varieties growing wild in the Preserve. Many of them like Scythian tulips are really rare. When they bloom, the meadows be­come an unforgettable sight as they produce a bright yel­low light. No wonder, they entered the Red Book of endan­gered species. If you like nature, you’ll enjoy every minute of your visit.

Bohdan

Dear Kate,

I went to Askania Nova’s Zoo this spring and must say that it is a natural world like no other. I strong- ly advise you to go there if you are interested in exploration. They say it is considered to be among the world's ten best zoos of its kind and has different species representing every continent. I saw Przhevalsky horses, zebras, bisons, antelopes for the first time in my life! Be­sides, a great number of birds’ nests are there. In fact, Askania Nova has almost everything! Don’t hesitate to go there!

Vasylina

Sport: Taking up or Giving up?

Part I

Alex: Hey, Kate, you are late for the meeting again. What is it this time?

Kate: My schedule, I guess. Lessons and other free-time activi­ties take up a lot of my time, so I can’t manage to do eve­rything in time. I’m so tired and exhausted

Alex: There is no problem, I believe.

What you need is to get more exercise. That will get you into a good working mood.

Kate: There is something in what you say. I must take up a sport that I can do whenever I have a little free time.

Alex: If you wish you could find time to get more exercise, then running is the perfect way to get yourself in shape. Be­sides, it’s so convenient — you can do it anytime, any­where! All you need is a big open space.

Kate: Excellent! I live near a big park and I can do running here.

Alex: Great! But before you start, consult your PT teacher, be­cause some people run incorrectly and risk their health. The teacher will teach you everything you need to know about this sport activity.

Kate: Thank you for your advice. I’m so enthusiastic about it. You certainly know a lot about sport.

125-126

"At Home: Make up a dialogue between two teenagers about the impact of technology on their life, using the information above. Follow the pattern.

Pattern:

A: I say,... are you ... ?

B: A: B: A: B: A: B:    
Sure. I believe that technology ... and ... . I can’t imagine my life without... .

Me too. Mum says that... . But it is so ... .

Exactly. I find it amazing that... .

Yet, it’s true that... . If you ask me, I... and ... .

I’m not that positive about it. As a general rule of thumb, ... should not... .

But I’d rather ... than ... .

Still, I find technology means to an end that is .... Above all, my obsession with ... is all around ... .So you admit that... .

I do. Don’t you

 

Your Language Portfolio: Reading

The thumb generation is the generation born after 1985, which as teens and ado­lescents communicated by the use of mo­bile devices such as mobile phones. Be­cause wireless mobile devices are small, the thumbs are generally used to type.

Use of hand-held technologies, such as mobile phones and palm computers, has caused a physical mutation in the under- 25s, according to new research.

The change affects those who have grown up with hand-held devices capable of text messaging, emailing and accessing internet services. Experts claim it proves technology is causing physical alterations that previously happened over genera­tions.

‘The relationship between technology and the users of tech­nology is mutual: we are changing each other,’ said Dr. Sadie Plant, author of the study and founder of the Cybernetic Cul­ture Research Unit at Warwick University. Discovering that the younger generation has taken to using thumbs in a com­pletely different way and are instinctively using it where the rest of us use our index fingers is particularly interesting.’

Dr. Plant noted how, while those less accustomed to mobile phones used one or several fingers to access the keypad, young­er people used both thumbs ambidextrously, barely looking at the keys as they made rapid entries. ‘They used the absolute minimal movement,’ she said. ‘Simply exerting pressure with the thumb rather than tapping at the phone.

‘There are many ways to input information into these devic­es, but for some reason kids under 25 most often choose to use their thumbs over any other digit. There is no question that choice is having a clear effect on their physicality: thumbs are the new fingers.’

Plant even found the Japanese under-25s referred to them­selves as oya yubi sedai — the thumb generation, or thumb tribe. As their thumbs become stronger and more dexterous, Plant found that the thumb tribe is using its favourite digit for other tasks that are traditionally the finger’s job, such as point­ing at things or ringing doorbells. 137

d) On Your Own: Find more information about types of housing typical of different countries. Present your findings to the class.

In writing, comment on this rhyme, using verbs of possession, emotions, senses, measurements, needs and preferences.

The Germans live in Germany;

The Romans live in Rome;

The Turks live in Turkey;

But the English live at home.

Your Language Portfolio; Reading

a) Read the story about the British homes and find five similarities and five differences between them.

Exchanging Visits

Sam and I are best friends. We are in the same class at school. We are pretty different, and many people are surprised that we are friends. At first I was surprised too, but now we are such good friends, I can’t believe I was so scared first time I went to Sam’s house.

I’ll start at the very beginning. When Sam and I met at school, we really got on well. Soon he invited me over to his house for dinner. I didn’t realise at the time, but Sam’s folks are loaded. They have a huge house in the suburbs. The suburbs are the nice parts of town with bigger houses. Usually there aren’t any buses to these parts of town, because most people have cars.

Their house is really nice. It’s a detached house, which means that it stands on its own, and Sam’s parents own the whole house. It has a big garden, with rose bushes and different trees. Most of the garden is lawn, except for the patio — but I’ll tell you about that later. Let me tell you about the first time I went to Sam’s house.

We arrived in Sam’s Mum’s car. She had picked us up after school. The house is surrounded by a tall brick wall, and when we went in through the gate, I couldn’t believe that one family could live in such a huge house. Sam’s Mum drove up the drive, and pulled up in front of the door. We went into the hall. There was a place to hang your coats, and a small table with the tele­phone on. Behind that were the stairs going up to the next floor. I wondered if Sam would take me up to his bedroom. It’s not po­lite to ask to see different rooms in a house, you can only see the ones the owners show you. Sam and his mum quickly took their coats off and went down a corridor, and through a door thatI could see went to the kitchen. I wished I could look through the other doors to see what was behind them, but they were all shut, so I followed the other two. The kitchen area was big, bright and colourful, and there was a large table and chairs where the family ate. There was a TV and a sofa in one corner. Sam told me that they had a dining room, with really nice furni­ture, for special occasions, but most of the time the family ate in this room.

Sam’s Mum started to cook a chicken casserole, and told us that we could go out into the garden. Sam opened the French windows that led into the garden, and I followed him outside, trying not to look as amazed as I felt. French windows are like glass doors that slide open. Outside was a small path leading through the grass to a bigger concrete square, called a patio. Here was a table and some chairs, the kind that you can leave outside, even when it rains. Sam explained that in the summer they often ate out in the garden, since it was so pretty. I could barely say anything, because I was so amazed at how big every­thing was. Suddenly I got really worried about inviting Sam to my house. My house is nothing like his. I hope he’ll still'want to be my friend when he sees where I live.

Sam didn’t have a bus pass, so he had to pay. We arrived at the end of our street. Our house is a row of terraced houses. We got off the bus, and walked up the road. In our street all the houses are joined together, there are no spaces between the houses. This means that when our neighbours are arguing very loudly, we can hear everything they say!

We got to our house and I opened the door. Our hall is very small. If more than two people want to come into the house, you have to feiVner go straight into one of the rooms, or climb the stairs, so that everyone can get in the house and you can close the door. The coats are hung up under the stairs, and there is no room for anything else! We have two rooms downstairs. One is a living room, and one is where we eat our meals. Then there is the kitchen, and if you go through the kitchen, you get to thetoilet and bathroom. (Ours is very small, and we don’t have a shower.) Upstairs are two more rooms — our bedrooms. One is Mum and Dad’s room, and the other is mine. All the houses on our street are like that. They are called ‘two up, two down’ be­cause there are 2 rooms upstairs and 2 downstairs.

After dinner, we went outside and kicked a football around. We have a small garden. It’s not very big, and just has grass — no flowers. Sam said that at home he wasn’t allowed to play football in the garden, because he might break his Mum’s flow­ers or French windows. I thought it was a pity to have such a big garden and not be able to play football. Sam said it was better to have a small garden where you could play football, than have a beautiful big garden where you couldn’t play. I hadn’t thought of it like that!

We had a really good time, and soon Sam’s Mum came to fetch him in her car. Sam asked if he could come again next week, since he had had such a good time! I felt really relieved. I had worried all week that he wouldn’t like my house because we don’t have much money, but he had a really good time. I’m glad Sam and I are best friends!

158-162

 

• The Royal family;

• The media;

• The pressure of being royal;

• A sheltered life;

• A stress-free childhood;

• To push the boundaries.

Part III

Jackie: Well, can you see Prince William or Prince Harry anywhere?

Carolyn: No, I can’t see them anywhere in these pictures.

I guess they weren’t there! They must have been too busy. Prince William, as you know, is second in line to the throne, after his father, Charles. Sometimes he has times when he doesn’t want to be king, even though all his life he has known that this is his des­tiny.

Jackie: And I have heard that Prince Harry (as they call him, even though his real name is Henry) is quite different from his brother. Harry certainly likes to enjoy himself, and seems to want to push the bound­aries further than his girl cousin, Zara. Yet, Harry plans to follow in his father’s footsteps as he gradu­ated from Sandhurst.

BrE to graduate — to obtain a degree from college or university

AmE to graduate — to complete your education at high school

Carolyn: I am sure that Army life will hold some surprises for him.

 

172-173

 

Academic English

accuracy

man of genius

to refer to sb

father of the topographical tra-

dition

landscape

to awaken sb to sth

to unfold

to feel a sense of national iden­tity

to collaborate on sth draughtsman

to paint in watercolour

medium

device

prolific

Conversational English

- • to be curious to see sth

to share an interest in sth

• picturesque scenery

to mark the anniversary panoramic

breathtaking

As a result, ...

 

 

Read Pablo Picasso’s words about art and say what truth about Britain the pictures below make you realise.

We all know that Art is not truth. Art is a lie that makes us realise truth, at least the truth that is given us to understand.”

Pablo Picasso

b) Complete the short biography of Henry Moore, choosing the cor­rect articles.

 

Short Biography of Henry Moore

Regarded as one of... (the /a) most gifted and prolific sculp­tors of ... (a / the) 20th century, Henry Moore began and solidi­fied ... (a / the) tradition in ... (the / -) art that was more or­ganic and abstract. By his later years, his figures were massive and comprised of ... (a / -) marble and bronze.

Born in ... (- / the) north of (a / -) England, young Henry didn’t have ... (a I an) upper-class upbringing. His father was ... (a I the) coal miner of Irish descent. Moore was given ... (the /a) scholarship to grammar school and was influenced greatly by his art instructor in ... (the / -) grammar school to pursue his talents. Following his productive and happy years at ... (a / -) grammar school, Moore was sent to ... (- / the) France to serve in ... (the / -) British Army. After, he was given ... (a /-) grant that allowed him to enroll in ... (the / -) Leeds School of Art, where he was finally given ... (the / -) chance to study sculpt­ing. Upon his graduation, he won another scholarship to ... (a / the) Royal College of Art in ... (- / the) London and in two years graduated.

Picturing Britain: Paul Sandby (1731—1809),
Nottingham Castle, Review
The Accuracy of Paul Sandby’s Paintings of the 18th-century
Countryside Captures Britain with Rare Clarity.

By Richard Dorment

In a famous letter written in 1764, Thomas Gainsborough declined a commission to paint Lord Hardwicke’s country seat, with the words, “with respect to real Views from Nature in this
Country... Paul Sandby is the only Man of Genius... who has
employed his Pencil that way”.

The artist he was referring to, Paul Sandby, has been called the father of the topographical tradition in English landscape. Through the views of Britain he painted in the middle years of the 18th century, he probably did more than any other individual to awaken the British people to the natural beauties of their own country.I sometimes wonder whether Sandby’s career unfolded at the time it did and in the way it did because his pictures fulfilled a psy-chological need. In the years following the defeat of the Jacobite rebellion in 1745, Britons began to feel a sense of national identity that had not existed before. As a result, perhaps they were curious to see in Sandby’s accurate views what
the country they now identified as their own looked like.

Born in Nottingham in 1730, Sandby was the younger brother of the architect, landscape designer
and draughtsman Thomas Sandby. The brothers often collaborated on paintings and also shared an interest in science and technology, including a fascination both with perspective and with the camera obscure — a precursor to the modern photographic camera in which external images are received through a lens and projected onto paper. Artists in the 18th century used these box-like devices to out­line an image in pencil before fill­ing in colours.

From 1751-1771, Sandby tra­velled through Britain painting country houses and picturesque scenery, often in watercolour, a medium he helped to develop as an independent art form. Among the highlights of a show at the mu­seum at Nottingham Castle, staged to mark the 200th anniversary of Sandby’s death, are a series of pan­oramic pictures presenting the vast extent and breathtaking beauty of great estates in England, Scotland and Wales.

This varied and constantly surprising show will be in Notting­ham until October 18, before trave­lling to the National Gallery of Scotland in Edinburgh (November 7 to February 7 2010), and ending up at the Royal Academy of Arts in London (March 13 to June 13).

185-186

 

Open the brackets using Past, Present,Future Simple

 

2. They... (to fight) for their independence as they ... (to be) freedom loving people.

3. People of Scotland ... (to recognise) the surname of a per­son by the tartan or the pattern.

4. The people of Wales ... (to want) to be ruled not by an English King but by a Prince of Wales.

5. So the eldest son of the King of England ... (to be) the Prince of Wales.

6. Next week we ... (to visit) Ireland.

7. We ... (to see) the Emerald Isle with own eyes soon.

8. Paul... (to study) British history.

9. His project... (to focus) on Irish customs and traditions. 10. Last year he ... (to make) a tour of Scotland and Wales and

... (to find) much interesting information.

 

Pre-test and engage yourself:

1. Can you present the history of Ukraine to a foreigner?

Yes □ No □

2. Have you ever applied your knowledge of geography to prac­tice in Ukraine?

Yes □ No □

3. Can you explain what kind of society is being built in Ukraine?

Yes □ No □

4. Can you express pride on being a Ukrainian?

Yes □ No □

Welcome to more of it!

Lessons of the Past: History


 

Academic English

• ancient / modern history •

• to record events

• to befall the country •

• to familiarize oneself with • •

• to think historically •

• ancient chronicles •

• to penetrate into sth •

• conquest •

• to create powerful political • *

• under sb’s rule / reign

• to wage (a)war

• precursor

• to be historically accepted

 

Conversational English

I’d like to start by saying that...

I can’t but agree,

to be baptized

to win sth


transform the second sentence so that it had the same meaning as the first. Use the words suggested.

Example: This is the saddest tragedy I have ever read. never

I have never read such a sad tragedy.

1. Ukraine has never experienced anything like that before.

ever

It’s the first time Ukraine ... anything like that.

2. We still remember the times we spent together.

forgotten We ... the times we spent together.

3.1 went to the new exhibition at the History museum in Kyiv, been

I. ... the exhibition at the History museum in Kyiv.

4. It was only four o’clock but there was nobody in the muse­um.

left

It was only four o’clock but... the museum.

5. When the soldiers arrived they could see the attack.

begun

When the soldiers arrived ... and they could see it.

6. The builders promised that the bridge would work in Sep­tember.

Restored

The builders ... the bridge by September.

 

The Years of Flourishment BrE to familiarise AmE to familiarize There have been lots of dramatic events in the history of my country. Its history, how­ever, is more than a chain of single events. It is the record of all the hopes, achieve­ments, defeats, victories, discoveries, ideas and beliefs of the Ukrainian people. You probably know that Ukrainian history records the victories and losses, wars and peaceful years, conquests, disasters and famines that have befallen the country. I can’t but agree that thinking historically is the only way to study the events of the past. So let’s familiarise ourselves with some early periods of Ukrainian history.
The Hardest Times Ukrainian modern history began with the East Slavs who founded a powerful state of Eastern slavs Kyivan Rus on the banks of the Dnipro in the 6th-7th centuries. The an­cient chronicles refer to the kingdom of Kyivan Rus that was the precursor to mo­dern day Russia, Ukraine and Belarus and whole capital was Kyiv.
New Era In the 8th century the Khazars / Nomadic Turkey and Iranian tribes from the Caucasus penetrated much into Ukraine. They built empire on their military strength as well as their Iranian and Jewish trading skills, Kyiv proved to be an important trading base, helping to bridge the Arab and Byzan­tine peoples. Even at that time the Slavs were valued by Khazars for their hard la­bour. In the same century new invaders ar­rived from the North — the Vikings or Var- iagy, who together with Slavic civilizations created the powerful political entity. Scien­tists stress that it was the time of economic wealth.

 

A Hero City

... By September 1941 Nazis ... (to invade) Kyiv. When they occupied the city, its many citizens ... (to leave) the capital. Six thousand buildings and many monuments were destroyed and the main street of Kyiv was in ruins.

But look at its photo now. Ukrainians ... (to restore) already their capital to its previous beauty. You can see that they ... (to build) many monuments a new. Historians say that by 1944, the people of Kyiv ... (to renew) a lot of damaged buildings. Many years ... (to pass) before the government marked the her­oism of the people of the city and honoured Kyiv with the title of hero city. It still bears this title with pride and dignity.

209-210

The Heroic Age

The 16th century came to Ukrainian history as the Cossack period. Historians claim that the original Cossacks were adven­turous serfs who had fled their masters and banded together in the Southern Ukrainian steppes. They were obliged to organise themselves into armed bands with fortified towns because they suffered a lot from the Polish kings, the Lithuanian dukes and the Turkish Empire, the frequent raids of the Tatars and no­body could defend the population. By the end of the century, the Cossack host was large and strong enough to offer protec tion to the growing communities of free peasants who escaped serfdom and were now settled all along the Southern Dnipro re­gion.

/ They built a fortress, the Zaporoz’ka Sich. The heart of the Sich was the Island of Khortytsya, which was founded in 1557 by Dmitro Vishnevetsky, who was the 1st Cossaks’ hetman.] From the Sich they launched their successful raids against for­eign oppressors.

Ukrainian peasantry revolted against the yoke of Poland, which brought the Cossack wars of 1648-1651/^The Cossacks were led by Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytskyi who joined the Cos­sacks in the 1620s. He was a great politician who acquired broad knowledge of world history and fluency in Polish, Latin, Turk­ish, Tatar and French. B. Khmelnitskyi was considered by for­eign leaders to be a brilliant diplomat who managed to establish friendly relations with many states. He was also a glorious com­mander and the battle near the settlement Zhelty Vody was the first victory in a series of victories in three peasant wars. Being an ardent orator, B. Khmelnitsky stirred the Cossacks to action with his fiery speech.

At the end of December 1647 B. Khmelnitskyi departed for Zaporizhzhia with a small detachment. This event marked the beginning of a new Cossack uprising, which turned into a na­tional revolution that liberated a large part of Ukrainian terri­tory from Poland, Thus a new Cossack Hetman state was estab­lished. B. Khmelnitskyi’s uprising induced some changes in the political system of Eastern Europe and brought certain changes in the socio-economic structure of Cossack Ukraine. Historians say that B. Khmelnitskyi’s Cossack state can be regarded as a new political entity — Ukraine of the Zaporozhzhian Host.

In 1654 B. Khmelnitskyi signed the Treaty of Pereiaslav be­tween Ukraine and Russia to help in their struggle against Po­land. He wanted to put Ukraine under the guardianship of a mighty neighbouring state in order to gain peace for his coun­try. B. Khmelnitskyi loved Ukraine and gave his life for it. 336


• have a strategic position

• to border sth

• topography

• plains and plateaus

• to reach the height of ...

• above / below the sea level

• mixed forest

• elevation

• fens

• steep rocky ravines

• fertile steppe region

• marshes

• isthmus

• to be contaminated

• sth of the sort

• a regrettable fact

• to decline

• to unfold

• to feel un(fit) for sth

• to be a must

• to be characteristic of sth / sb

• to be beyond words

• incomparable

• In this connection ...

• It can’t be otherwise.

• Nothing of the kind.


b) Read the adjectives and use them for describing the words above in your own sentences.

• steep • multi-coloured

b) Read the adjectives and use them for describing the words above in your own sentences.

wide - •precise

• fertile • rocky

• grassy • dangerous

Read the information about the northern part of Ukraine, Polissia, and fill in the proper words from the box. Find some in­formation about the place you live in and characterize its geography, fauna and flora by analogy.

Polissia

The northern part of Ukraine, or Ukrainian Polissia, belongs to the mixed zone. The surface is well warmed by the ... and the area has enough …. Polissia is famous for the charming beauty of the .... In spring ..., birds come back from warmer countries. Near the water you can see long-legged ... looking for frogs. But the biggest attraction of Polissia is ... forests with their ... and ... It is warmer to the … and that’s the reason that more ... trees, like birches can be seen there. ... are covered with differ­ent types of grass and flowers. The first plants to blossom in spring are ... and .. . Their beauty 'is ... and it is always a pleasure to walk there.

 

 

Exploring Your Country

Part I

Interviewer:They say that you've made a big trip around Ukraine which took nearly 3 weeks. Wasn’t it exhaust­ing?

Taras Nothing of the kind. I tra­vel every summer. I am a member of the school geo­graphical society and every summer we get together to explore a new place.

Interviewer: Then it’s a must.Otherwise, you’ll feel unfit for your trip and geographical research, right?

Taras:In a way, but the feeling I get during my exploration trip means so much for me: to see the largest wholly European country from East to West is really excit­ing.

Interviewer: In this connection I’d like to ask you a question. Since Ukraine is situated in South Eastern Europe on the crossroads of the ways from Asia to Europe, its po­sition. is favourable for establishing contacts with other countries, isn’t it?

Taras: It sure is. Ukraine has a strategic position in Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea in the South, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary in the West, Belarus in the North, Moldova and Romania in the South-West and Russia in the East.

Interviewer: So it has good and friendly relations with its neighbours.

Taras: It can’t be otherwise. Neighbours can understand each other easily.

221-222

 

Academic English


• to serve the rights and freedoms

• to adopt the Constitution

Conversational English

• to implement one’s poten­tials

• to be an embodiment of sth

 

under the Constitution

legislative power

executive power

judicial power

national sovereignty

territorial integrity

people’s deputy

to appoint Prime Minister

to carry out domestic and foreign policy

to correspond to the Consti­tution

to strive for peace

to be a guarantor nuclear-free zone nuclear disarmament

on behalf of sb

 


 

 

a) Read the parts of two political articles and say what kind of a society is being built in Ukraine.

 

...When asked, what kind of a so­ciety was being built in Ukraine, ex­president Leonid Kuchma said with­out hesitation: “Our goal is to consolidate a truly democratic, so­cially responsible society in Ukraine, one based on solidarity and relying on the historical traditions and men­tality of the nation, on general hu­man values developed by modern civilization; a society, which would harmoniously combine work, talent and social capital where each and every would be able to completely implement his potentialities; a society which would in reality secure the rights and freedoms of every individual....

...Our state must be an embodiment of the age-old dreams of the Ukrainian nation of all nationalities inhabiting the land of Ukraine. We do hope that this state will mark the victorious ac­complishment of all that began by our national prophets of the struggle waged by so many generations of our people who took up arms to defend the freedom of Ukraine. This state of ours will be a sequel to the tradition of political construction, started by the princes of Kyivan Rus a thousand years ago, upheld by glorious Ukrainian hetmans and revived by Ukrainian state formations of the 20thcentury.

(from the book “This is Ukraine”)

 

The Constitution of Ukraine adopted on July 28, 1996, outlines the structure of the national govern­ment and specifies its powers and duties. Under the Constitution the powers of the government are divid­ed into three branches — the legisla­tive which consists of the Verkhovna Rada, the executive, headed by the President, and the judicial, which is led by the Supreme Court.

The President of Ukraine is the head of the state and speaks on be­half of it. The President is a guaran­tor of national sovereignty, territo­rial integrity, adherence to the Constitution, human and civil rights and freedoms.The Parliament — the Verkhovna Rada — is the only body of the legislative power in Ukraine, which consists of 450 peoples’ deputies. The Verkhovna Rada’s main function is making laws. It also adopts the state budget.

The Cabinet of Ministers (Government) of Ukraine acts on the basis ofthe Constitution, laws of Ukraine and presidential orders. The Gov­ernment is responsible to the President and is controlled by the Verkhovna Rada. It carries out domestic and foreign policy of Ukraine, develops and fulfils national programmes on the eco­nomic, scientific, technological, social and cultural develop­ment of Ukraine. The President appoints Prime Minister with parliamentary consent.Justice in Ukraine is exercised by courts. The Supreme Court is the highest juridical body of general jurisdiction. The Consti Consti­tutional Court resolves issues of correspondence of legal acts to the Constitution of Ukraine.234

  Academic English   Conversational English
tramp in pursuit of one’s dream
drought on sb’s own admission
flooding to venture into sth
time zone to have an impact on sb / sth
T • canyon a risk-taker
V • prairie land self-reliant
desert to have a solution
mountain range to have extremes
to acquire new territories to shape the tradition of sth
to be on the move e bursts of energy
v/ » freak of nature to take in sth
snow plough not surprisingly...
  equator * under the circumstances...

 

About 44 percent of the popula­tion spend time gardening.

You probably know that no place in Britain is more than 75 miles from the sea. Not surprisingly, nobody in Britain lives more than one hundred and twenty kilometers from the sea, that’s why pe­ople go for their holidays or just on a day trip to the seaside. By the way, it was the British who started the fashion for seaside holidays and made an extremely popular British tour to Brighton with its Pavil­ion. Besides, fishing has always been an important industry and thanks to that fact, fish and other seafood are very popular in Britain.

I think that the physical geography can also explain the Bri­tish love of compromise, because the land and climate in Britain don’t have extremes. Britain has mountains, but none of them are very high, it also has flat land, but you can’t travel for with­out seeing hills. It has no big rivers and it has no active volca­noes. This may or may not be true but it does have an impact on the British.

My country covers 4500 kilometres from one ocean on the east to another one on the West. Three quarters of the country is washed by the ocean, there­fore millions of Americans participate in water sports, such as swimming, surf­ing, sailing and water-skiing. The USA is a land of physical contrasts. People within four time zones. Practically every climate of the is presented. The Southern part of the country has warm temperatures year round. Because of this,

fresh grapefruits, oranges, lem­ons, melons, cherries and peaches are grown there. Low-cost, high-quality fruits and vegetables are available any time of the year and Americans love to provide their countrymen and guests with them.

I think nature has been kind to Ukraine. We have a good climate favour­able for agriculture and that’s why Ukrainians have much to do all the year round. But spring and autumn are known for bursts of energy. Seeing the bright sunshine of the coming spring and the wet bare soil of the lawn, many city dwellers begin to prepare for the new dacha season.

Autumn brings with it the harvest time and a lot of work. Being hard work­ing, Ukrainians spend the biggest part of their free time on their fields, in the gardens and orchards. Tending the dacha becomes not only a favourite hobby, but it’s a way of life and almost an occupation.

The subtropical climate of the Crimea, its picturesque scen­ery and the Black Sea attract a lot of tourists. No wonder that many Crimeans work in the seasonal tourist trade in the numer­ous sanatoria on the South Coast, I believe.

b) Now listen again and correct the errors in the following statements.

1. The Kyoto Prize is the Chinese equivalent to the Nobel Prize.

2. The sponsor of the prize is a successful businessman in medicine and pharmacology.

3. Unlike the Nobel Prize, it is always given to a Corporation.

4. Every spring the winners are given a prize.

5. The winners receive a diploma, a silver watch and 50 mil­lion yen.

6. The sponsor feels that more recognition should be given to those who work for individual goals.

7. The founder of the prize hopes to encourage the develop­ment of our scientific side.

8. Inamori believes in people’s strength.

9. In 2003 the Russian laureate, Zhores Ivanovich Alferov, won the Kyoto prize for Advanced Technology.

10. In 2006 the prize for arts and philosophy went to a film di­rector.

 

Kyoto Prizes to Further Stress “Moral” Achievements

The Kyoto Prize is Japan’s equivalent of the Nobel Prize. The awards are given to individuals or groups who made “sig­nificant contributions to the progress in science, the develop­ment of civilization, and the enrichment and elevation of the human spirit”. The sponsor of the Prizes is the Inamori Foun­dation, founded in 1984 by Kazuo Inamori, a successful busi­nessman in ceramics and electronics. The prize is similar to the Nobel Prize, but more inclusive as it acknowledges Arts and Philosophy, as well as Advanced Technology and Basic Science. Unlike the Nobel Prize, however, it is never given to corpora­tions. Every November, three winners of the Kyoto Prize receive a diploma, a gold watch and 50 million yen. The prizes are given to scientists, philosophers and even filmmakers.

 

At the Ecological Club Meeting

Part I

Oksana: I’d like to welcome those who have understood the en­vironmental damage of the last century, those who over time have finally understood that nature is suf­fering and the effect of humanity’s influence is con­siderably greater now. In short, welcome to our meet­ing of the ecological club.

Nina Petrovna: I’m glad that so many children of our school have become environmental activists. Time has come to help scientists to manage the living planet, to deter­mine the quality of human life and environment well into the 21st century.

Boris: Let’s remember the surprising observation a great Ukrainian scientist Volodimir Vernadsky made nearly 70 years ago. He wrote that people were becoming a geological force, shaping the planet’s future just as rivers and earthquakes had shaped its past; that global society, guided by science would soften the human en­vironmental impact and the Earth would become a “no-osphere” — “a planet of the mind”, life’s domain ruled by reason.

Bogdan: So, the great geochemist’s words have come true. To­day many scientists say that Vernadsky’s thinking has already been proved correct: people have significantly altered the atmosphere and influenced strong eco-sys- tems and natural selection. Today this influence is a lot stronger. Becoming far more knowledgeable, people ventured to conquer nature creating sophisticated sa­tellites, supercomputers, making experiments and ...

Helen: That’s true, but don’t forget that for many centuries man has been trying to solve nature’s mysteries, to discover its laws, to make it serve his necessities.

Boris: That’s it! And in doing so, people change this world.

New discoveries and inventions, new technologies make a dramatic impact on the planet. And mind, our planet is our habitat!

 

Academic English


technical civilization

environmental damage

humanity

to soften the human environmental impact

global society

geochemist

to alter the atmosphere

sophisticated satellites

to solve nature’s mysteries

to facilitate the life of sb

water shortage

to live in harmony with sth

 

Conversational English

to shape one’s future / past

to get knowledgeable

to serve sb’s necessities

to know sth (not) by hear­say

to be dedicated to to set sth up

to focus attention on sth

everlasting

consequence

in short

I’m with you on that 265


Our Picture of the Universe

A well-known scientist (some say it was Bertrand Russell) once gave a public lecture on astronomy. He described how the earth orbits around the sun and how the sun, in turn, orbits around the cen­tre of a vast collection of stars called our galaxy. At the end of the lecture, a little old lady at the back of the room got up and said: “What you have told us is rubported on the back of a giant tortoise.”The scientist gave a superior smile before replying, “What is the tortoise standing on?” “You’re very clever, young man, very clever,” said the old lady. “But it’s turtles all the way down!”Most people would find the picture of our universe as an infinite tower of tor­toises rather ridiculous, but why do we think we know better? What do we know about the universe, and how do we know it? Where did the universe come from and where is it going? Did the universe have a beginning, and if so, what hap­pened before then? What is the nature of time? Will it ever come to an end? Recent breakthroughs in physics, made possi­ble in part by fantastic new technologies, suggest answers to some of these longstanding questions. Someday these answers may seem as obvious to us as the earth orbiting the sun — or perhaps as ridiculous as a tower of tortoises. Only time (what­ever that may be) will tell.

As long ago as 340 B.C. the Greek philosopher Aristotle, in his book “On the Heavens”, was able to put forward two good arguments for believing that the earth was a round sphere rath­er than a flat plate. First, he realised that the eclipses of the moon were caused by the earth coming between the sun and the moon. 282

 

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