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Laboratory work № 1.3



Laboratory work № 1.1. Organization of Biological Laboratory, the rules of work in it. Safety and health. The structure and procedure of working with light microscope. Protocols

 

 

To perform work on the operation of the equipment of laboratories using technical training, electrical permitted persons who were introductory and primary instruction on health, study the instructions on fire safety, learning the rules of first aid, study the instructions for use and precautions when working with laboratory equipment .

Safety requirements before you start.

1. Check workplace to remove unnecessary items and appliances.

2. Check light at the workplace.

3.Familiarise the technical passport and operating manual required for operation.

4.Pereviryty state fire safety of the workplace, and electrical grounding.

 

Requirements for Safety during operation.

Turn on and off appliances according to the order in the attached instructions. If necessary, carry out routine maintenance of equipment according to the instruction and passports equipment when equipment malfunctions detected electrical work must be completed because report about malfunction to Head of Laboratory

Requirements for safety after the performance.

Turn off the power supply equipment in reverse order, disconnect electric powered dewices from power source. Bring in the normal condition of the workplace.

Requirements for safety in emergency situations

1. To be able to promptly identify signs of possible emergency situations.

2. To be able to use the facilities emergency protection in case of an emergency to take the necessary measures and report compliance to safety and relevant services of the university.

3. Be able to provide first aid to victims if any.

 

Requirements for laboratory notebooks. Requirements have fundamental differences from conventional rules and provide a mandatory existence of such records on the cover and title page:

- students full Name of the;

- Institute, course, group;

- The name of thediscipline

- Year of study.

 

Performing laboratory work must be executed in a laboratory notebook as follows:

 

DATE 00.00.00

TiTLE (Lab number XX)

Aim, objectives

EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS AND METHODS

Protocol of the laboratory work

RESULTS: writing, tables, photographs, drawings.

CONCLUSIONS

TEACHER’s Mark

 

Control questions

- Rules of Conduct in the biological laboratory.

- What hazards can occur in biolaboratoriyi?

- What is a biological hazard?

- Protective equipment used in biological laboratories.

 

Laboratory work № 1.2.

 

Methods of studying cells. The structure and procedure of working with light microscopes. The main types of cells. Their structure and main features.

Aim Study of the main features of plant and animal cells.

 

Objectives Study plants preparates under a light microscope using different lenses. Chemical composition of cells. Characteristics of the main compounds in the cell. Viruses as an intermediate form of life.

 

Theoretical information

Microscopy-baced methods use a microscope and methods of making microscopic preparations.

There are: optical microscopy, electron microscopy, ion microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray microscopy, laser microscopy.

Microscopic analysis - measuring the size of particles under the microscope and classifying them into groups within the narrow confines of a certain size (for material particle size from 50 microns to tenths of microns).

We know that the possibilities are limited nature of the human eye. Sensitive receptors in the optic nerve in the retina have a relatively small diameter (a few microns), and if the light rays from two points located very close to each other, get to the same receptor, the image of these objects and merges eye does not distinguish between them as two points. Healthy human eye at a distance of 25 cm from the object forms an image of two points last separately if they are at a distance of not less than 0.1 mm. The shortest distance between two points, an image which forms the eye alone, called resolutional distance. The lower it to a specific device, the greater its resolution (d). In order to increase the resolution of the eye, people have long started to use magnifying glasses (lenses). These were relatively simple microscopes. Modern microscopes are arranged essentially the same and actually are the same improved microscope. They consist of mechanical and optical parts (Fig. 1.2.).

 

 
 

fig. 1. Scheme of microscope MBP – 1

1 - stand, 2 - box with micromechanism 3 - macrometric screw 4 - micrometric screw, 5 - tubeholder 6 - mono or binocular attachment, 7 - eyepiece 8 - revolver Lens, 9 - lenses, 10 - the stage, 11 - condenser, 12 - condenser bracket 13 - condenser handle, 14 – mirror (or light source).

 

Equipment, materials and methods.

Microscope objective lenses, glasses with hole, glass rods, hinges, cover lenses.

Plants higher.

The order of performance and recommendations

- Obtain samples of living cells and tissues.

- Prepare for microscopy native (unstained preparatess) types "hanging drop" and "crushed drop."

- Prepare smears and other preparations for painting.

- Fix samples chemically and thermally

- Conduct coloring technique.

- These preparates microscopy. To fix the image on all available degrees of increase, from less to most.

- Compare appearance of cells fixed and stained and native.

- Set clear image of moving the condenser.

 

Control questions

- what Biological Laboratory Equipment do you know?

- The concept of sterility, antiseptics, asepsics;

- Laboratory equipment that promotes safety work in biological laboratories.

- Define microscopy as a method.

 

Laboratory work № 1.3

 

The main types of cells. Darkfield. Scanning and fluorescence microscopy. Study of the main features of plant and animal cells. Terrestrial and aquatic plants. The simplest

 

Aim

Mastering the basic methods and approaches biological microscopy

Task

Study of the main features of plant and animal cells. Terrestrial and aquatic plants. The simplest

Theoretical information

Microscopy is wide used to study the morphology and ultrastructure of the cells to determine type of cells, genus, species, and to determine the properties, functions and roles of individual cells in tissues, organisms, natural processes using the following methods:

microscopic, in which a specially made preparations (smear, crushed drop, etc..) under a microscope studying the shape, size, structure, relation to staining cells, cell motility;

samples, which involves seeding cells in culture media, isolation of individual species from each other and explore the nature of the growth of pure cultures on nutrient media;

chemistry, which allows to determine the selected cells belonging to a particular type, type, type on its biochemical (enzymatic) activity of cells or to clarify the role they play in the tissues, organisms in the circulation of substances in nature;

sero-based identification (identification) of selected bacteria and determining their species and typical accessories for their antigenic structure by antibodies contained in the antiserum;

Biology in microbiological laboratories, allowing separate pathogenic for humans, animals and plants from saprophytic microbes. It is produced by infection of experimental animals or plants microbe, dedicated to pure culture

 

field of view diameter(about), µm
Objective piece magnification Х20 Х25 Х40 Х90
field of view diameter, µm

 

Equipment, materials and methods.

Microscope objective lenses, glasses with hole, glass rods, hinges, cover lenses.

Bacteria, plants

The order of performance and recommendations

- Obtain samples of living cells and tissues.

- Prepare for microscopy native (unstained preparates) types "hanging drop" and "crushed drop."

- Prepare smears and other preparations for painting.

- Fix samples chemically and thermally

- Carry out staining technique.

- Make a microscopy observations of obtained preparations. Fix the image on all available degrees of magnification, from lower to most.

- Compare view of cells fixed and stained and native.

- Set clear image of changing the position of condenser.