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Disarmament dilemma – Eisenhower works between the two different schools – has to show he wants arms control but not sure if that is what he wants





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Many believe E wanted the Soviets to move properly before he did

Eisenhower’s main move regarding arms reduction was his chance for Peace speech in April 1953 which he gave to the american society of Newspaper editors. As part of the speech he mentioned a five point plan for arms reduction – have a look on the next page and generally discussed the imporatance of speech between the two major powers, he talked about Korea, Germany and other issues

Of the issues which needed to be solved – debates over what to do with Germany – we will look at these more later, what should be done with the division of Austria – it had been divided into four occupying zones just like Germany

Eisenhower’s speech has an empty element about it

Second idea was the idea of Dulles – large zone in Europe with restricted armaments and for the US and Soviets to withdraw from Western and Eastern Europe – would never be accepted

In December 1953 – E gave his atoms for peace speech – in it E proposed that certain amount of nuclear items be handed over to an atomic agency – again not a very big step by E – symbolic

Difficult to know how genuine the plans were on both sides – were they actually just in order to win the cold war or not?

Let’s see how things changed in 1955 regarding these moves

A very forward looking plan by Eisenhower but he didn’t really trust the Soviet Union enough to carry it out properly – many issues which needed to be solved.

Important to stress the disarmament dilemma for the US – seeking disarmament publicly but at the same time not sure if that’s what they want but situation improves during this period – two powers prepared to talk

Difficult to say whether the US were seeking disarmament for peace’s sake or to be the victors of the cold war, massive amount of distrust between the two powers

The Soviets were intent on moving towards some sort of arms control organisation, in 1955 Soviet pressure regarding disarmament was added to by the British and the French, whose public were also worried about the threat of nuclear war. In February 1955 the British and French Total ban on the manufacture of nuclear weapons, reductions in nuclear and other forces, they proposed a Central organ to do this

In early 1955 the Soviet proposed inspections of nuclear weapons by a central agency, Jan 1955 – Malenkov had stated that as a result of nuclear weapons on both side, need for peaceful coexistence

Soviet proposals of inspections of nuclear weapons were at first angrily rejected by Eisenhower

Also important in this period regarding a relaxation of the atmosphere was the agreement over Austria – from the middle of 1955 American and Soviet troops left Austria and it became an independent country again- shows the Soviets were prepared to move somewhat

In July 1955 the big four – presidents and prime ministers (+foreign ministers)of US, Britain, Soviets and France met up in Geneva to talk about global security, issues about disarmament and peaceful coexistence. Important as people came to the table to discuss the issues. Although nothing important in principle was agreed and all powers not prepared to be concrete about disarmament.

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