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have/has + Past Participle





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PRESENT PERFECT

FORMATION:

I have seen Peter twice today. – Have you seen Ann too? – No I haven’t seen her yet.

Jenny has lost her ring. - Has she lost her watch too? – No, luckily she hasn’t.

PRESENT PERFECT IS USED:

1. Present perfect connects the past and the present. That is, it describes actions, which started in the past and continue up to the present or actions, which were completed in the past but whose results affect the present.

Mrs. Swift has looked after little children all her life.

I’ve done all my work for today and I’m free now.

2. Present perfect is used to describe an action which started in the past and continues up to the present, especially with stative verbs such as have, like, know, be, etc. In this case, prepositions for and since areoften used.

They have been friends for twenty years.

(They met each other twenty years ago and they are still friends.)

They have been friends since they met in 1990.

3. Present perfect is also used for an action, which has recently finished and whose result is visible in the present.

Look at my basket. I’ve picked a lot of apples.

(The apples are in the basket, so the action has finished.)

4. Present perfect is also used in clauses of time and condition for an action, which will be over before a certain moment in the future, e.g.

The doctor will stay with us until your sister has fully recovered.

Could you wait till I have made these sandwiches?

5. Present Perfect is also used for an action, which happened at an unstated time in the past.The exact timeis not important, so it is not mentioned. Theemphasis is placed on the action, e.g.

Paul has broken his arm. (The exact time is not mentioned because what is important is the fact that his arm is broken.)

Peter has been to Paris four times. (The exact time of each of his visits is not mentioned. What is important is the fact that he has visited Paris four times.)

6. Present Perfect is also used for an action which has happened within a specific time period, which is not over at the moment of speaking, such as today, this morning, this afternoon/week/month/year, etc,. e.g.

Pat has received three faxes this morning. (The action has been repeated three times up to now and may happen again because the time period – this morning – is not over yet.)

She received three taxes this morning and answered all of them. (The time period – this morning – is over. It is now probably afternoon or evening).

7. Present Perfect is usually used in the attributes the first, the second, the only, etc., e.g.

It is the only book the writer has written.

It is the first time I have tasted mango juice.

It is the second time you’ve told it to me.

8. Present Perfect is used for ‘breaking the news’, e.g.

Mum, I have got married!

Miss Flora, Peter has broken one of the windows in the classroom!

9. Present Perfect is used to speak about people’s life experiences, e.g.

I have been to many European countries.

John has never eaten fried bananas before.

10. Present Perfect is used to speak about a series of repeated actions in the recent past, e.g.

Maria has typed ten reports today.

11. Present Perfect is preferably used in negative sentences instead of Present Perfect Continuous, e.g.

What has Bertha been doing all day? – I don’t know for sure, but I do know that she hasn’t lazed about.

12. Present Perfect is usually used with the following time expressions (adverbial modifiers of time):

· already

We have already seen this film.

Have you finished this book already? (surprise)

· yet

Has Roger left yet?

Simon has not finished painting the hall yet.

· just

I have just phoned Jill.

The postman has just brought a letter for Jane.

· always, often

Mary has always loved animals, she is going to be a vet.

How often have you seen Robert this year?

· ever, never

Have you ever been abroad?

I have never eaten oysters.

· so far

I have sent twenty invitations so far.

What have you done so far?

· lately, recently

Peter has had a lot of good luck lately/recently.

I haven’t seen much of him lately/recently.

Notes:

· Yet” and “alreadyin general interrogative sentences have different meaning. “Already” is used to show surprise, e.g.

Have you already done your homework? It can’t be so! You began only 10 minutes ago.

“Yet” has no emotional colouring, e.g.

Have you done your homework yet? Good. Now we can play football.

· Recently” = not long ago = недавно

· Lately” = recently, in the recent past = останнім часом; за останній час

· For” ≠ ‘during’.

During” is used to say when something happened and is used with past tenses, e.g.

It rained all Monday but stopped raining during the night.

Paul was ill for a week and during that time he didn’t eat anything.

For”answers the question ‘how long?’ and can be used with all tenses, e.g.

I’m going to stay in Kiev for 3 weeks. (present continuous)

I stayed in Kiev for 3 weeks last year. (past indefinite)

I have stayed in Kiev for 3 weeks already. (present perfect)

I have been staying in Kiev for 3 weeks already. (present perfect continuous)

I had stayed in Kiev for 3 weeks before moving to Lviv. (past perfect)

How long will you stay in Kiev? – I’m not sure. Probably, I will stay for 3 weeks. (future indefinite)

 

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