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The end of the presentation Handling questions
Ending the main body of the presentation Right, that ends (the third part of) my talk. That's all 1 want to say for now on ...
Beginning the summary and/or conclusion I'd like to end by emphasising the main
point(s). I'd like to finish with ...
- a summary of the main points.
- some observations based on what I've said.
- some conclusions / recommendations.
- a brief conclusion.
There are two conclusions /
recommendations. What we need is ... I think we have to ... I think we have seen that we should ...
Inviting questions and/or introducing
That concludes (the formal part of) my talk.
(Thanks for listening) ... Now I'd like to
invite your comments. Now we have (half an hour) for questions and
discussion. Right. Now, any questions or comments? So, now I'd be very interested to hear your
Understood but difficult or impossible to answer That's a difficult question to answer in a few words.
- It could be ...
- In my experience ...
- 1 would say ...
- I don't think I'm the right person to answer that. Perhaps (Mr Holmes) can help ...
- I don't have much experience in that field...
Understood but irrelevant or impossible to
answer in the time available
I'm afraid that's outside the scope of my talk /
this session. If I were you I'd discuss that
with ... I'll have to come to that later, perhaps during
the break as we're short of time.
Sorry, I'm not sure I've understood. Could
you repeat? Are you asking if ... ? Do you mean ... ?
I didn't catch (the last part of) your question. If I have understood you correctly, you
mean ... ? Is that right?
Checking that your answer is sufficient Does that answer your question? Is that okay?
Unit 9 The end is near ... this is the end
Structure (3) Ending the presentation
. Restates main point(s).
• Restates what the audience must
understand and remember.
. Contains no new information.
• Is short.
• States the logical consequences of what has been said.
• Often contains recommendations.
• May contain new and important information.
• Is short.
• Inviting questions implies that the audience are less expert than the speaker.
• Beware of the 'nightmare scenario' -total silence! Have one or two prepared questions to ask the audience.
• Keep control of the meeting.
• Inviting discussion gives the impression that the audience have useful experience, so is often more 'diplomatic'.
• You still need to control the discussion.
Inviting discussion and questions
• Often the best solution.
• Keep control, limit long contributions, watch the time.
• Listen very carefully.
• Ask for repetition or clarification if necessary.
• Paraphrase the question to check you understand it.
• Give yourself time to think - perhaps by paraphrasing the question.
• Check that the question is relevant. If not, don't answer if you don't want to.
• Refer questioner to another person if you can't answer.
• Suggest you'll answer a question later if you prefer.
• Check that the questioner is happy with your answer: eye contact and a pause is often sufficient.
• Keep control.
• Don't allow one or two people to dominate.
• Be polite.
• Signal when time is running out - 'Time for one last question'.
• At the end, thank the audience.
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