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North Wales 11. Orkney Islands

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1) Clwyd 12. Shetland Islands

2) Gwynedd

For the purpose of simplification Britain can be divided into 8 great industrial regions:

1. The Midland Area (around Birmingham and Wolverhampton);

2. Yorkshire (Leeds, Sheffield);

3. Lancashire (Liverpool, Manchester);

4. Durham and Northumberland;

5. Wales (South Wales);

6. Scotland (from Glasgow to Edinburgh);

7. Northern Ireland;

8. The London Area.

The major cities are: London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool, Sheffield, Leeds, Bristol, Manchester, Edinburgh.

2.3.The Main Port-Cities of the Country

London lies 40 miles (64 km) from the mouth of the River Thames, it covers 625 sq. miles. It was founded by the Romans in the I A.D. as a convenient administrative and communications centre and a port for trade with Continental Europe. Greenwich is a borough of London well known over the world. Greenwich Mean Time (GMN) takes its name from the Old Greenwich Observatory which is now part of the National Maritime Museum. Longitude is calculated from the Greenwich meridian (0 longitude) – the Prime Meridian.

London is a royal city. For a thousand years it has been a principal residence of British Monarchs, as well as the centre of business and government, it is rich in historic buildings and treasures from all periods. The architecture of London streets now is a mixture of new and old.

London is divided into the West End and the East End. The West End is famous for its royal, cultural and architectural landmarks, for entertainment and shopping opportunities. The East End includes all the main dock areas and is heavily industrialized. The City of London today is the financial powerhouse of London. Bankers, brokers, buyers and traders conduct their daily business within its boundaries. The Bank of England in Threadneedle Street is the National bank which holds the country’s gold reserves.

Many Kent and Sussex ports grew prosperous on trade. Portsmouth, Hampshire was a vital naval port with its noisy and dangerous nightlife; now it is interested for those who want to know more about English Naval history: The Royal Naval Museum, the D–Day Museum, the Ch.Dickens Museum.

Hastings, East Sussex is well known in British History as the site of battle (1066) between the army of the duke William (the Conqueror) and the Saxons, led by King Harold II. Now it is a modern seaside resort, one of the first Cinque Ports. The Channel ports are Hastings, Romney, Hythe, Sandwich, Dover.

Doveris the leading port for cross Channel travel and now the terminal for the Channel Tunnel. It is a gateway to London.

Bristol, the city at the mouth of the Avon, became the main British port for transatlantic trade; it started the era of the ocean-going steam liners. The city flourished as a major center of trading wine, tobacco and, in the 17th c., slaves.

Dartmouth was important as a port and it has the Royal Naval College where British naval officers have trained since 1905.

Plymouth is the tiny port from which sailed on their first voyages Sir Francis Drake (1540 – 1596, who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe. He introduced tobacco and potatoes to England), the Pilgrims Fathers in 1620, James Cook (18 c.) and Darwin (19 c.). It is a big city now.

Liverpool lies 3 km inland from the Irish Sea on the river Mersey in the county of Lanchashire. It is connected to Manchester via 40 km long Manchester Ship Canal. The Port’s financial sector and tourism are a major contribution to the local economy. It is one of the world’s few cities where cruise vessels can berth in the city center.

It was founded in 1207 by King John. In 199 the first slave ship sailed from the port to Africa. In 171 the first commercial dock was built. By the end of the 18 th c. this port dominated more than 80 % of Britain’s slave trade and over 40 % of Europe. In 1830 Manchester and Liverpool became the first cities to be linked by rail. In 1886 Liverpool was called “New York of Europe” for its wealth.

The port handles more than 4.5 mln tons of dry bulk cargo per year (coal, steel, metal); general cargo (steel products, fertilizers, food); receives crude oil; imports forest products; makes daily trips from Liverpool to Dublin and Belfast by 8 roll-on/roll-off ferry services. It is one of the busiest container ports in Britain and Northern Europe.

The Mersey Docks and Harbour Company (MHDC) is the port authority which provides pilotage; navigational buoys, lights, channels, mooring, tidal and hydrographic information to port users.

The most popular attractions: the Beatles Story, the Maritime Museum, the International Slavery Museum; architecture and color of the houses in Castle Street unchanged from the early times. The Mersey Ferry offers several daily cruises.

Yorkis the 2nd city in numbers of visitors, the city where Roman and Viking relics exist side by side. The glory of York is the minster. The word “minster” means a church served by monks, but priests always served at York. York Minster is England’s largest medieval church.

Newcastleupon Tyne was founded in 1080 by the eldest son of William the Conqueror. It is known as the world’s foremost shipyard.

Cardiff is the largest city of Wales; three rivers (the Taff, the Ely, the Remney) flow through it into the Bristol Channel. Cardiff is home for the National Museum of Wales, the Welsh Industrial Maritime Museum etc.

Swansea is the 2nd city of Wales. Swansea Bay leads to the Mumbles – a popular water-sports center.

Glasgow became the cradle of Scotland’s Industrial Revolution fuelled by James Watt‘s development of the steam engine in the 1840s. Glasgow created a cotton industry and launched the world’s greatest ships.

Aberdeen is the 3rd largest city of Scotland and Europe’s offshore oil capital; one of Britain’s most important fishing ports.

Royal Deeside is inland from Aberdeen, on the river Dee, one of the world’s prolific salmon rivers.

Belfast is the capital of Northern Ireland, or Ulster, the center of Protestant power, a birthplace of legendary Titanic.

Londonderry is the 2nd city in Ulster, has a Navy base and port.



Answer the questions:


1. What can you say about the regions of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland?

2. Enumerate the main industrial regions in Britain.

3. What cities and ports do you know in Great Britain?


Task 1.Prepare the report about one of the large cities in Great Britain.




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