Оценка качества освоения дисциплины включает текущий контроль в форме экзамена - чтение и перевод профессионально - ориентированного текста по специальности.
Промежуточный контроль успеваемости освоения дисциплины проводится в форме лексико-грамматических тестов.
Примерные тестовые задания для промежуточного контроля:
I. Выберите правильную форму глагола
1. Он никогда не был в Англии.
a) was not
b) has never been
c) had never been
2. Как давно вы ждете свой багаж?
a) are you waiting
b) do you wait
c) have you been waiting
3. Мой друг сейчас живет в Турку. Он магистр, изучает финскую культуру.
а) is living/is studying
b) lives and studies
c) has been living/has been studying
4. Мои родители всю жизнь прожили в Ижевске.
b) have lived
c) were living
5. Самолет прибывает точно по расписанию, в 3 часа.
a) is arriving
c) will arrive
6. Ты уже выбрал дисциплины для своей академической мобильности?
a) did you choose
b) have you chosen
c) had you chosen
7. Чем вы в настоящее время занимаетесь? - Готовлюсь к лекции.
a) am preparing
c) have been preparing
8. Вчера у нас была экскурсия в Лондон.
a) were having
c) have had
9. За два дня до этого мы купили билеты на автобус.
a) had bought
c) have bought
10. Завтра в это время я буду лететь над океаном!
a) will fly
b) will be flying
c) is flying
II. Выберите правильную форму глагола
11. I _____ the hotel room yesterday.
a) had booked
c) have booked
12 .She _____ sightseeing almost every day.
b) is going
13. Could you, please, turn the music down? I _____.
b) am reading
c) have been reading
14. Yesterday, when I _____ my bill in the bank I _____ my wallet there.
a) pay / left
b) paid / left
c) was paying / left
15. I am tired, I _____ for five hours without a break
a) am working
c) have been working.
16. She _____ her keys; it makes me angry.
a) is always loosing
b) always looses
c) have always lost
17 .I am hot, I _____ tennis.
b) am playing
c) have been playing
18. I _____ TV, when my friend came.
b) was watching
c) have been watching
19. She _____. You as soon as she ______ to the Heathrow.
a) will call / will get
b) will call / get
c) call / get
20 .If I ____you I _____ my chance.
a) were / wouldn’t miss
b) will be / do not miss
c) am / will not miss
Ш.Выберите соответствующие cлова-индикаторы
21. I'll have left for London _____ this time tomorrow.
22. I will call you _____.
a) the previous day
b) next week
23. _____ I was filling in the form, the customs officer came up to me.
b) In those days
24. I have been waiting for you _____ early morning.
25. She has been packing the suitcase _____ two hours.
26. The travel agent has answered a lot of calls _____ 9 o’clock.
27. Haven’t you got your visa _____?
28. Have you _____ been to the USA?
29. She won’t have come ______ 6 o’clock.
30. A famous actor left Hollywood for a tour of Europe _____.
a) not long ago
IV. Определите является ли предложение
a) - грамматически правильным
b) - грамматически неправильным
31. If he studies well, he will get a scholarship.
32. If she were in Rome, she would visit the Vatican.
33. If he had bought a tour to Brazil last month, he will have been present at the annual carnival.
34. If I had ten thousand dollars, I would buy a two-week voyage.
35.If I were you, I will travel light.
V. Выберите правильную форму вопросов
36. Some flight was announced. / What _____?
a) was announced
b) did announced
37. Someone’s ticket was lost. / Whose ticket _____?
a) was lost
c) did loose
38. The bags are being carried somewhere. / Where _____?
a) being carried
b) are the bags carried
c) are the bags being carried
39. The rooms have been reserved by someone. / Whom _____?
a) rooms have been reserved
b) have the rooms been reserved
40. Some mistake has been corrected. / What _____?
a) has been corrected
b) been corrected
41. He has been sunbathing for some hours. / How long _____?
a) he has been sunbathing
b) has he been sunbathing
c) he was sunbathing
42. He is telling something to a customs officer. / What _____?
a) is he telling
b) he is telling
c) does he tell
43. My friends are leaving for Paris in some days. / When _____?
a) do my friends leave
b) are my friends leave
c) are my friends leaving
44. People are waiting for a train at the platform. / Who _____?
b) is waiting
45. Very few students have been abroad. / Where _____?
b) have students been
с) have been students
VI. Найдите вариант перевода, соответствующий грамматической структуре предложения
46. The delegates will be met by the commission.
a) Делегаты будут встречены комиссией.
b) Делегатов будет встречать комиссия.
47. He is being looked at by her.
a) Он смотрит на нее.
b) Она смотрит на него.
48. In Mr.Black’s office you spoke when you were spoken to.
a) В кабинете мистера Блэка вы говорили тогда, когда говорили с вами.
b) В кабинете мистера Блэка вы разговорили тогда, когда вам надо было поговорить.
49. The candidates have been interviewed.
a) Кандидаты задавали вопросы.
b) Кандидатам задали вопросы.
50. The passengers’ luggage should be searched.
a) Пассажиры должны осматривать свой багаж.
b) Багаж пассажиров должны осматривать.
Задания к экзамену.
Чтение и перевод профессионально - ориентированного текста по специальности.
THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE LEGAL SYSTEMS
The structure of the courts in all three jurisdictions within the United Kingdom tends to be arranged according to the subject-matter of cases brought before the courts rather than the source of the laws to be applied. The latter did form the basis for a great deal of court structure until the end of the nineteenth century and even now has some influence.
In civil cases, the litigation is commenced by a plaintiff (a private person or company or a public authority) against a defendant. The plaintiff must try to prove the liability of the defendant on the balance of probabilities. The sorts of claims arising in the civil courts are typically about contracts (most common of all), torts (civil wrongs such as the causing a road accident through negligence, damaging a person’s reputation through defamation, or affecting the enjoyment of their property through causing a nuisance such as by pollution) and land disputes. The choice of court depends in most cases on the value of the claim. Claims of lesser value will start ina County Court. There are 250 County Courts around the country. They can also deal with divorce and bankruptcy matters. Relatively small claims (less than about �3,000) can be handled by a Small Claims Procedure. This involves a quick hearing, often without lawyers being present, before a District Judge. The parties can however appeal to a Circuit Judge who also deals with full County Court trials. In 1995, nearly 2.5 million "actions" (cases) were commenced. Just over two million were actions for the recovery of debts based on contracts. Almost 200,000 were actions relating to land (mainly for repossession of houses where a mortgage or rent had not been paid). Another 200,000 related to matrimonial proceedings. The Small Claims Procedure dealt with 100,000.
More substantial civil claims (over around �25,000) are heard in the High Court (based in London but also with a few regional centres, often housed within Crown Court buildings). The action is begun by writ, which is accompanied by a statement of claim in which the details of the legal dispute is set out. The High Court is organized according to case type into Divisions:
a Family Division deals with divorce and child welfare matters and also the administration of wills. Child welfare matters include both proceedings brought by child protection agencies, such as local authorities - about 17,000 in 1995. Parents and guardians may also make applications, for example about custody and access - 102,000 in 1995. There were also over 5,000 adoption orders. Divorce is mainly dealt with in the County Courts, but the High Court does hear a small number of complex, contested cases. The Family Division also oversees the uncontested administration of wills - a process called "probate". It authorizes the executors to act on behalf of the deceased person if it can be shown that all the papers are in order. There were about a quarter of a million grants of probate in 1995.
a Chancery Division considers complex matters such as disputes about wills, settlements and trusts, bankruptcy, land law, intellectual property (copyright and patents) and corporate laws. In 1995 nearly 11,000 general actions (mainly relating to land disputes) were begun. There were also 13,000 bankruptcy petitions and nearly 18,000 company cases (mainly relating to insolvency). Many of the company cases are dealt with in a specialist sub-Division, the Companies Court. See the Chancery Division judgments.
the Queen’s Bench Division deals with the remaining business - disputes about contracts or torts or land. The Queen’s Bench Division has some specialist sub-Divisions, including a Commercial Court (dealing with large and complex business disputes; there were about 200 in 1995), a Crown Office List (dealing with actions against public authorities - about 4,000) and an Admiralty Court (shipping matters - about 500). See the Queen's Bench Division judgments.
See generally The Court Service web site and the Lord Chancellor's Department which are currently under construction.
Any civil trial is in the vast majority of cases by a judge alone. Juries are now very rare in civil cases. Another feature to note is that cases are often slow to pass through the system, measured in months or years rather than weeks as for criminal cases. It is also important to realize that a very large proportion of civil claims are "settled" - the parties agree on how they should be resolved and therefore the case never reaches trial. This applies both to High Court and County Court. In 1995:
· The number of trials in the County Court was just 24,477.
· In the Queen’s Bench Division, there were 31,737 writs issued but judgment in only 1520 cases
The system of appeal in civil cases is as follows:
1. from a County Court or the High Court, there is an appeal to the Civil Division of the Court of Appeal on law only. In 1995 there were 991 final appeals and 756 "interlocutory" appeals (these are appeals from the way the case is being handled through the lower court rather than an appeal about the final verdict). See the Court of Appeal, Civil Division judgments.
2. from the High Court, there may be an appeal to the House of Lords on a matter of legal importance - just two cases in 1995
3. from the Court of Appeal, there can be an appeal to the House of Lords on fact or law, but usually appeal is only allowed on matters of legal importance - 47 in 1995
The study of the state, government, and politics.
The idea that the study of politics should be ‘scientific’ has excited controversy for centuries. What is at stake is the nature of our political knowledge, but the content of the argument has varied enormously. For example, 1741 when Hume published his essay, ‘That Politics May Be Reduced to a Science’, his concerns were very different from those of people who have sought to reduce politics to a science in the twentieth century. Although concerned to some degree to imitate the paradigm of Newtonian physics, Hume's main objective was to show that some constitutions necessarily worked better than others and that politics was not just a question of personalities. Thus one of his main targets was the famous couplet in Alexander Pope's Essay on Man: ‘For forms of government let fools contest, | Whate'er is best administer'd is best.’
The twentieth-century debate about political science has been part of a broad dispute about methodology in social studies. Those who have sought to make the study of politics scientific have been concerned to establish a discipline which can meet two conditions: it must be objective or value-free (wertfrei), and it must seek comprehensive and systematic explanations of events. The principal candidate for the role of core methodology of political science has been behaviourism, drawing its stimulus-response model from behavioural psychology and thus being much concerned to establish ‘correlations’ between input phenomena, whether ‘political’ or not, and political outcomes. The chief rival, growing in stature as behaviourism waned after 1970, has been rational choice theory, following economics in assuming as axioms universal human properties of rationality and self-interest. Critics of the idea of political science have normally rested their case on the uniqueness of natural science. In the philosophical terminology of Kant, real science is the product of the synthetic a priori proposition that ‘every event has a cause’. The idea that the universe is regular, systematic, and law-governed follows from neither logic nor observation; it is what Sir Peter Strawson has called, more recently, a ‘precondition of discourse’. In order for people to study physics rationally, they must assume that the universe is governed by laws. It follows from this Kantian conception of the basis of science that there can only be one science, which is physics. This science applies just as much to people, who are physical beings, as it does to asteroids: like the theistic God, Kantian physics is unique or it is not itself. Biology, chemistry, engineering et al. are forms of physics, related and reducible to the fundamental constituents of the universe. The social studies are not, according to critics of political science, and become merely narrow and sterile if they attempt to ape the methods and assumptions of the natural sciences. The understanding we seek of human beings must appreciate their individual uniqueness and freedom of will; understanding people is based on our ability to see events from their point of view, the kind of insight that Weber called verstehen. In short, the distinction between science and non-science, in its most significant sense, is a distinction between the natural sciences and the humanities; the two are fundamentally different and politics is a human discipline. However, there are a number of objections to this harsh dichotomy between politics and science. Semantically, it might be said, this account reads too much into the concept of science which, etymologically, indicates only a concern with knowledge in virtually any sense. Wissenschaft in German, scienza in Italian, and science in French do not raise the profound philosophical questions which have been attached to the English word science. There are also many contemporary philosophers who seek to undermine the scientific nature of natural science. Inspired, particularly, by Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962) they argue that science itself is not determined by the absolute requirements of its discourse, but is structured by the societies in which it operates. Thus real physics is more like politics than it is like the Kantian ideal of physics, and it has no more claim to be a science than has politics.— Lincoln Allison